Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic

G R Osinski, P Lee, J G Spray, J Parnell, D S S Lim, T E Bunch, C S Cockell, B Glass

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Haughton impact structure has been the focus of systematic, multi-disciplinary field and laboratory research activities over the past several years. Regional geological mapping has refined the sedimentary target stratigraphy and constrained the thickness of the sedimentary sequence at the time of impact to similar to 1880 m. New Ar-40-Ar-39 dates place the impact event at similar to 39 Ma, in the late Eocene. Haughton has an apparent crater diameter of similar to 23 km, with an estimated run (final crater) diameter of similar to 16 km. The structure lacks a central topographic peak or peak ring, which is unusual for craters of this size. Geological mapping and sampling reveals that a series of different impactites are present at Haughton. The volumetrically dominant crater-fill impact melt breccias contain a calcite-anhydrite-silicate glass groundmass, all of which have been shown to represent impact-generated melt phases. These impactites are, therefore, stratigraphically and genetically equivalent to coherent impact melt rocks present in craters developed in crystalline targets. The crater-fill impactites provided a heat source that drove a post-impact hydrothermal system. During this time. Haughton would have represented a transient, warm, wet microbial oasis. A subsequent episode of erosion, during which time substantial amounts of impactites were removed, was followed by the deposition of intra-crater lacustrine sediments of the Haughton Formation during the Miocene. Present-day intra-crater lakes and ponds preserve a detailed paleoenvironmental record dating back to the last glaciation in the High Arctic. Modern modification of the landscape is dominated by seasonal regional glacial and niveal melting, and local periglacial processes. The impact processing of target materials improved the opportunities for colonization and has provided several present-day habitats suitable for microbial life that otherwise do not exist in the surrounding terrain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1759-1776
Number of pages18
JournalMeteoritics & Planetary Sciences
Volume40
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Keywords

  • SHOCK-WAVE METAMORPHISM
  • ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS
  • TERRESTRIAL IMPACT
  • U-PB
  • ROCKS
  • ASTROBLEME
  • CHICXULUB
  • GERMANY
  • ORIGIN
  • ATEM

Cite this

Osinski, G. R., Lee, P., Spray, J. G., Parnell, J., Lim, D. S. S., Bunch, T. E., ... Glass, B. (2005). Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic. Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences, 40, 1759-1776.

Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic. / Osinski, G R ; Lee, P ; Spray, J G ; Parnell, J ; Lim, D S S ; Bunch, T E ; Cockell, C S ; Glass, B .

In: Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences, Vol. 40, 2005, p. 1759-1776.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

Osinski, GR, Lee, P, Spray, JG, Parnell, J, Lim, DSS, Bunch, TE, Cockell, CS & Glass, B 2005, 'Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic', Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 1759-1776.
Osinski, G R ; Lee, P ; Spray, J G ; Parnell, J ; Lim, D S S ; Bunch, T E ; Cockell, C S ; Glass, B . / Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic. In: Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences. 2005 ; Vol. 40. pp. 1759-1776.
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T1 - Geological overview and cratering model for the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic

AU - Osinski, G R

AU - Lee, P

AU - Spray, J G

AU - Parnell, J

AU - Lim, D S S

AU - Bunch, T E

AU - Cockell, C S

AU - Glass, B

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - The Haughton impact structure has been the focus of systematic, multi-disciplinary field and laboratory research activities over the past several years. Regional geological mapping has refined the sedimentary target stratigraphy and constrained the thickness of the sedimentary sequence at the time of impact to similar to 1880 m. New Ar-40-Ar-39 dates place the impact event at similar to 39 Ma, in the late Eocene. Haughton has an apparent crater diameter of similar to 23 km, with an estimated run (final crater) diameter of similar to 16 km. The structure lacks a central topographic peak or peak ring, which is unusual for craters of this size. Geological mapping and sampling reveals that a series of different impactites are present at Haughton. The volumetrically dominant crater-fill impact melt breccias contain a calcite-anhydrite-silicate glass groundmass, all of which have been shown to represent impact-generated melt phases. These impactites are, therefore, stratigraphically and genetically equivalent to coherent impact melt rocks present in craters developed in crystalline targets. The crater-fill impactites provided a heat source that drove a post-impact hydrothermal system. During this time. Haughton would have represented a transient, warm, wet microbial oasis. A subsequent episode of erosion, during which time substantial amounts of impactites were removed, was followed by the deposition of intra-crater lacustrine sediments of the Haughton Formation during the Miocene. Present-day intra-crater lakes and ponds preserve a detailed paleoenvironmental record dating back to the last glaciation in the High Arctic. Modern modification of the landscape is dominated by seasonal regional glacial and niveal melting, and local periglacial processes. The impact processing of target materials improved the opportunities for colonization and has provided several present-day habitats suitable for microbial life that otherwise do not exist in the surrounding terrain.

AB - The Haughton impact structure has been the focus of systematic, multi-disciplinary field and laboratory research activities over the past several years. Regional geological mapping has refined the sedimentary target stratigraphy and constrained the thickness of the sedimentary sequence at the time of impact to similar to 1880 m. New Ar-40-Ar-39 dates place the impact event at similar to 39 Ma, in the late Eocene. Haughton has an apparent crater diameter of similar to 23 km, with an estimated run (final crater) diameter of similar to 16 km. The structure lacks a central topographic peak or peak ring, which is unusual for craters of this size. Geological mapping and sampling reveals that a series of different impactites are present at Haughton. The volumetrically dominant crater-fill impact melt breccias contain a calcite-anhydrite-silicate glass groundmass, all of which have been shown to represent impact-generated melt phases. These impactites are, therefore, stratigraphically and genetically equivalent to coherent impact melt rocks present in craters developed in crystalline targets. The crater-fill impactites provided a heat source that drove a post-impact hydrothermal system. During this time. Haughton would have represented a transient, warm, wet microbial oasis. A subsequent episode of erosion, during which time substantial amounts of impactites were removed, was followed by the deposition of intra-crater lacustrine sediments of the Haughton Formation during the Miocene. Present-day intra-crater lakes and ponds preserve a detailed paleoenvironmental record dating back to the last glaciation in the High Arctic. Modern modification of the landscape is dominated by seasonal regional glacial and niveal melting, and local periglacial processes. The impact processing of target materials improved the opportunities for colonization and has provided several present-day habitats suitable for microbial life that otherwise do not exist in the surrounding terrain.

KW - SHOCK-WAVE METAMORPHISM

KW - ISOTOPE SYSTEMATICS

KW - TERRESTRIAL IMPACT

KW - U-PB

KW - ROCKS

KW - ASTROBLEME

KW - CHICXULUB

KW - GERMANY

KW - ORIGIN

KW - ATEM

M3 - Literature review

VL - 40

SP - 1759

EP - 1776

JO - Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences

JF - Meteoritics & Planetary Sciences

SN - 1086-9379

ER -