Global distribution of two fungal pathogens threatening endangered sea turtles

Jullie M Sarmiento-Ramirez, Elena Abella-Perez, Andrea D Phillott, Jolene Sim, Pieter van West, Maria P Martin, Adolfo Marco, Javier Dieguez-Uribeondo*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)
8 Downloads (Pure)


Nascent fungal infections are currently considered as one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem health, and have driven several animal species into critical risk of extinction. Sea turtles are one of the most endangered groups of animals and only seven species have survived to date. Here, we described two pathogenic species, i.e., Fusarium falciforme and Fusarium keratoplasticum, that are globally distributed in major turtle nesting areas for six sea turtle species and that are implicated in low hatch success. These two fungi possess key biological features that are similar to emerging pathogens leading to host extinction, e. g., high virulence, and a broad host range style of life. Their optimal growth temperature overlap with the optimal incubation temperature for eggs, and they are able to kill up to 90% of the embryos. Environmental forcing, e. g., tidal inundation and clay/silt content of nests, were correlated to disease development. Thus, these Fusarium species constitute a major threat to sea turtle nests, especially to those experiencing environmental stressors. These findings have serious implications for the survival of endangered sea turtle populations and the success of conservation programs worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere85853
Number of pages9
JournalPloS ONE
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2014


  • solani species complex
  • fusarium-solani
  • caretta-caretta
  • phylogenetic-relationships
  • colletotrichum-acutatum
  • aphanomyces-astaci
  • ribosomal DNA
  • SP-NOV
  • infections
  • nests


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