Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis

Deepson S Shyangdan, Pamela L Royle, Christine Clar, Pawana Sharma, Norman R Waugh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are given by injection, and regulate glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, suppressing glucagon secretion, and delaying gastric emptying and promoting satiety. This systematic review aims to provide evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the GLP-1 agonists in patients not achieving satisfactory glycaemic control with one or more oral glucose lowering drugs.

METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to find the relevant papers. We identified 28 randomised controlled trials comparing GLP-1 analogues with placebo, other glucose-lowering agents, or another GLP-1 analogue, in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate control on a single oral agent, or on dual therapy. Primary outcomes included HbA1c, weight change and adverse events.

RESULTS: Studies were mostly of short duration, usually 26 weeks. All GLP-1 agonists reduced HbA1c by about 1% compared to placebo. Exenatide twice daily and insulin gave similar reductions in HbA1c, but exenatide 2 mg once weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced it by 0.20% and 0.30% respectively more than glargine. Liraglutide 1.2 mg daily reduced HbA1c by 0.34% more than sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide gave similar improvements in HbA1c to sulphonylureas. Exenatide 2 mg weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced HbA1c by more than exenatide 10 ug twice daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide 2 mg weekly reduced HbA1c by 0.3% more than pioglitazone 45 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide resulted in greater weight loss (from 2.3 to 5.5 kg) than active comparators. This was not due simply to nausea. Hypoglycaemia was uncommon, except when combined with a sulphonylurea. The commonest adverse events with all GLP-1 agonists were initial nausea and vomiting. The GLP-1 agonists have some effect on beta-cell function, but this is not sustained after the drug is stopped.

CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 agonists are effective in improving glycaemic control and promoting weight loss.
Original languageEnglish
Article number20
Number of pages26
JournalBMC Endocrine Disorders
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2010

Fingerprint

Glucagon-Like Peptide 2
Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Meta-Analysis
Glucose
pioglitazone
Nausea
Weight Loss
Library Science
Placebos
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Insulin
Gastric Emptying
exenatide
Glucagon
Hypoglycemia
MEDLINE
Vomiting
Randomized Controlled Trials
Liraglutide

Cite this

Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis. / Shyangdan, Deepson S; Royle, Pamela L; Clar, Christine; Sharma, Pawana; Waugh, Norman R.

In: BMC Endocrine Disorders, Vol. 10, 20, 09.12.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Shyangdan, Deepson S ; Royle, Pamela L ; Clar, Christine ; Sharma, Pawana ; Waugh, Norman R. / Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis. In: BMC Endocrine Disorders. 2010 ; Vol. 10.
@article{8851397d7608476cadf2b9af73fcc04b,
title = "Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are given by injection, and regulate glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, suppressing glucagon secretion, and delaying gastric emptying and promoting satiety. This systematic review aims to provide evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the GLP-1 agonists in patients not achieving satisfactory glycaemic control with one or more oral glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to find the relevant papers. We identified 28 randomised controlled trials comparing GLP-1 analogues with placebo, other glucose-lowering agents, or another GLP-1 analogue, in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate control on a single oral agent, or on dual therapy. Primary outcomes included HbA1c, weight change and adverse events. RESULTS: Studies were mostly of short duration, usually 26 weeks. All GLP-1 agonists reduced HbA1c by about 1{\%} compared to placebo. Exenatide twice daily and insulin gave similar reductions in HbA1c, but exenatide 2 mg once weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced it by 0.20{\%} and 0.30{\%} respectively more than glargine. Liraglutide 1.2 mg daily reduced HbA1c by 0.34{\%} more than sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide gave similar improvements in HbA1c to sulphonylureas. Exenatide 2 mg weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced HbA1c by more than exenatide 10 ug twice daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide 2 mg weekly reduced HbA1c by 0.3{\%} more than pioglitazone 45 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide resulted in greater weight loss (from 2.3 to 5.5 kg) than active comparators. This was not due simply to nausea. Hypoglycaemia was uncommon, except when combined with a sulphonylurea. The commonest adverse events with all GLP-1 agonists were initial nausea and vomiting. The GLP-1 agonists have some effect on beta-cell function, but this is not sustained after the drug is stopped. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 agonists are effective in improving glycaemic control and promoting weight loss.",
author = "Shyangdan, {Deepson S} and Royle, {Pamela L} and Christine Clar and Pawana Sharma and Waugh, {Norman R}",
year = "2010",
month = "12",
day = "9",
doi = "10.1186/1472-6823-10-20",
language = "English",
volume = "10",
journal = "BMC Endocrine Disorders",
issn = "1472-6823",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Glucagon-like peptide analogues for type 2 diabetes mellitus

T2 - systematic review and meta-analysis

AU - Shyangdan, Deepson S

AU - Royle, Pamela L

AU - Clar, Christine

AU - Sharma, Pawana

AU - Waugh, Norman R

PY - 2010/12/9

Y1 - 2010/12/9

N2 - BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are given by injection, and regulate glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, suppressing glucagon secretion, and delaying gastric emptying and promoting satiety. This systematic review aims to provide evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the GLP-1 agonists in patients not achieving satisfactory glycaemic control with one or more oral glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to find the relevant papers. We identified 28 randomised controlled trials comparing GLP-1 analogues with placebo, other glucose-lowering agents, or another GLP-1 analogue, in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate control on a single oral agent, or on dual therapy. Primary outcomes included HbA1c, weight change and adverse events. RESULTS: Studies were mostly of short duration, usually 26 weeks. All GLP-1 agonists reduced HbA1c by about 1% compared to placebo. Exenatide twice daily and insulin gave similar reductions in HbA1c, but exenatide 2 mg once weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced it by 0.20% and 0.30% respectively more than glargine. Liraglutide 1.2 mg daily reduced HbA1c by 0.34% more than sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide gave similar improvements in HbA1c to sulphonylureas. Exenatide 2 mg weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced HbA1c by more than exenatide 10 ug twice daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide 2 mg weekly reduced HbA1c by 0.3% more than pioglitazone 45 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide resulted in greater weight loss (from 2.3 to 5.5 kg) than active comparators. This was not due simply to nausea. Hypoglycaemia was uncommon, except when combined with a sulphonylurea. The commonest adverse events with all GLP-1 agonists were initial nausea and vomiting. The GLP-1 agonists have some effect on beta-cell function, but this is not sustained after the drug is stopped. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 agonists are effective in improving glycaemic control and promoting weight loss.

AB - BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) analogues are a new class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They are given by injection, and regulate glucose levels by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion and biosynthesis, suppressing glucagon secretion, and delaying gastric emptying and promoting satiety. This systematic review aims to provide evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the GLP-1 agonists in patients not achieving satisfactory glycaemic control with one or more oral glucose lowering drugs. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to find the relevant papers. We identified 28 randomised controlled trials comparing GLP-1 analogues with placebo, other glucose-lowering agents, or another GLP-1 analogue, in patients with type 2 diabetes with inadequate control on a single oral agent, or on dual therapy. Primary outcomes included HbA1c, weight change and adverse events. RESULTS: Studies were mostly of short duration, usually 26 weeks. All GLP-1 agonists reduced HbA1c by about 1% compared to placebo. Exenatide twice daily and insulin gave similar reductions in HbA1c, but exenatide 2 mg once weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced it by 0.20% and 0.30% respectively more than glargine. Liraglutide 1.2 mg daily reduced HbA1c by 0.34% more than sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide gave similar improvements in HbA1c to sulphonylureas. Exenatide 2 mg weekly and liraglutide 1.8 mg daily reduced HbA1c by more than exenatide 10 ug twice daily and sitagliptin 100 mg daily. Exenatide 2 mg weekly reduced HbA1c by 0.3% more than pioglitazone 45 mg daily. Exenatide and liraglutide resulted in greater weight loss (from 2.3 to 5.5 kg) than active comparators. This was not due simply to nausea. Hypoglycaemia was uncommon, except when combined with a sulphonylurea. The commonest adverse events with all GLP-1 agonists were initial nausea and vomiting. The GLP-1 agonists have some effect on beta-cell function, but this is not sustained after the drug is stopped. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 agonists are effective in improving glycaemic control and promoting weight loss.

U2 - 10.1186/1472-6823-10-20

DO - 10.1186/1472-6823-10-20

M3 - Article

C2 - 21143938

VL - 10

JO - BMC Endocrine Disorders

JF - BMC Endocrine Disorders

SN - 1472-6823

M1 - 20

ER -