Glucose uptake by the brain on chronic high-protein weight-loss diets with either moderate or low amounts of carbohydrate

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Abstract

Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 % of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 % lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 % lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)586-597
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume111
Issue number4
Early online date5 Sep 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014

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Reducing Diet
Ketone Bodies
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Carbohydrates
Hunger
Diet
Glucose
Brain
Proteins
3-Hydroxybutyric Acid
Deoxyglucose
Appetite
Positron-Emission Tomography
Cross-Over Studies
Meals
Eating

Keywords

  • ketogenic diets
  • glucose kinetics
  • ketone body metabolism
  • brain
  • positron emission tomography
  • cerebral-blood-flow
  • plasma amino-acids
  • ketone bodies
  • food-intake
  • beta-hydroxybutyrate
  • acute hyperketonemia
  • ketogenic diet
  • ad-libitum
  • rat-brain

Cite this

@article{3c5ebcb8bd5a44daaac6a5e94941e465,
title = "Glucose uptake by the brain on chronic high-protein weight-loss diets with either moderate or low amounts of carbohydrate",
abstract = "Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 {\%} of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 {\%} lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 {\%} lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.",
keywords = "ketogenic diets, glucose kinetics, ketone body metabolism, brain, positron emission tomography, cerebral-blood-flow, plasma amino-acids, ketone bodies, food-intake, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acute hyperketonemia, ketogenic diet, ad-libitum, rat-brain",
author = "Lobley, {Gerald E.} and Johnstone, {Alexandra M.} and Claire Fyfe and Horgan, {Graham W} and Grietje Holtrop and Bremner, {David M.} and Iain Broom and Lutz Schweiger and Andy Welch",
year = "2014",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1017/S0007114513002900",
language = "English",
volume = "111",
pages = "586--597",
journal = "British Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0007-1145",
publisher = "Cambridge Univ. Press.",
number = "4",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Glucose uptake by the brain on chronic high-protein weight-loss diets with either moderate or low amounts of carbohydrate

AU - Lobley, Gerald E.

AU - Johnstone, Alexandra M.

AU - Fyfe, Claire

AU - Horgan, Graham W

AU - Holtrop, Grietje

AU - Bremner, David M.

AU - Broom, Iain

AU - Schweiger, Lutz

AU - Welch, Andy

PY - 2014/2

Y1 - 2014/2

N2 - Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 % of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 % lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 % lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.

AB - Previous work has shown that hunger and food intake are lower in individuals on high-protein (HP) diets when combined with low carbohydrate (LC) intakes rather than with moderate carbohydrate (MC) intakes and where a more ketogenic state occurs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the difference between HPLC and HPMC diets was associated with changes in glucose and ketone body metabolism, particularly within key areas of the brain involved in appetite control. A total of twelve men, mean BMI 34·9 kg/m2, took part in a randomised cross-over trial, with two 4-week periods when isoenergetic fixed-intake diets (8·3 MJ/d) were given, with 30 % of the energy being given as protein and either (1) a very LC (22 g/d; HPLC) or (2) a MC (182 g/d; HPMC) intake. An 18fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan of the brain was conducted at the end of each dietary intervention period, following an overnight fast (n 4) or 4 h after consumption of a test meal (n 8). On the next day, whole-body ketone and glucose metabolism was quantified using [1,2,3,4-13C]acetoacetate, [2,4-13C]3-hydroxybutyrate and [6,6-2H2]glucose. The composite hunger score was 14 % lower (P= 0·013) for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet. Whole-body ketone flux was approximately 4-fold greater for the HPLC dietary intervention than for the HPMC diet (P< 0·001). The 9-fold difference in carbohydrate intakes between the HPLC and HPMC dietary interventions led to a 5 % lower supply of glucose to the brain. Despite this, the uptake of glucose by the fifty-four regions of the brain analysed remained similar for the two dietary interventions. In conclusion, differences in the composite hunger score observed for the two dietary interventions are not associated with the use of alternative fuels by the brain.

KW - ketogenic diets

KW - glucose kinetics

KW - ketone body metabolism

KW - brain

KW - positron emission tomography

KW - cerebral-blood-flow

KW - plasma amino-acids

KW - ketone bodies

KW - food-intake

KW - beta-hydroxybutyrate

KW - acute hyperketonemia

KW - ketogenic diet

KW - ad-libitum

KW - rat-brain

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114513002900

DO - 10.1017/S0007114513002900

M3 - Article

VL - 111

SP - 586

EP - 597

JO - British Journal of Nutrition

JF - British Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0007-1145

IS - 4

ER -