GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks: a systematic and transparent approach to making well informed healthcare choices. 1: Introduction

Pablo Alonso-Coello, Holger J. Schünemann, Jenny Moberg, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Elie A. Akl, Marina Davoli, Shaun Treweek, Reem A. Mustafa, Gabriel Rada, Sarah Rosenbaum, Angela Morelli, Gordon H. Guyatt, Andrew D. Oxman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Clinicians, guideline developers, and policymakers sometimes neglect important criteria, give undue weight to criteria, and do not use the best available evidence to inform their judgments. Explicit and transparent systems for decision making can help to ensure that all important criteria are considered and that decisions are informed by the best available research evidence. The GRADE Working Group has developed Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks for the different type of recommendations or decisions. The purpose of EtD frameworks is to help people use evidence in a structured and transparent way to inform decisions in the context of clinical recommendations, coverage decisions, and health system or public health recommendations and decisions. EtD frameworks have a common structure that includes formulation of the question, an assessment of the evidence, and drawing conclusions, though there are some differences between frameworks for each type of decision. EtD frameworks inform users about the judgments that were made and the evidence supporting those judgments by making the basis for decisions transparent to target audiences. EtD frameworks also facilitate dissemination of recommendations and enable decision makers in other jurisdictions to adopt recommendations or decisions, or adapt them to their context. This article is a translation of the original article published in British Medical Journal. The EtD frameworks are currently used in the Clinical Practice Guideline Programme of the Spanish National Health System, co-ordinated by GuíaSalud.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166.e1-166.e10
JournalGaceta Sanitaria
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018


  • Clinical practice guidelines
  • Clinical recommendations
  • Coverage
  • Healthcare decisions
  • Healthcare systems
  • Public health


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