Growth hormone transgenesis in coho salmon disrupts muscle immune function impacting cross-talk with growth systems

Abdullah Alzaid, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Robert H Devlin, Samuel Martin, Daniel J MacQueen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Suppression of growth during infection may aid resource allocation towards effective immune function. Past work supporting this hypothesis in salmonid fish revealed an immune-responsive regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, an endocrine pathway downstream of growth hormone (GH). Skeletal muscle is the main target for growth and energetic storage in fish, yet little is known about how its growth is regulated during an immune response. We addressed this knowledge gap by characterizing muscle immune responses in size-matched coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) achieving different growth rates. We compared a wild-type strain with two GH transgenic groups from the same genetic background achieving either maximal or suppressed growth, a design separating GH’s direct effects from its influence on growth rate and nutritional state. Fish were sampled 30h post-injection with PBS (control) or mimics of bacterial or viral infection. We quantified mRNA expression levels for genes from the GH, GH receptor, IGF hormone, IGF1 receptor and IGF-binding protein families, along with immune genes involved in inflammatory or antiviral responses and muscle growth status marker genes. We demonstrate dampened immune function in GH transgenics compared to wild-type. The muscle of GH transgenics achieving rapid growth showed no detectable antiviral response, coupled with evidence of a constitutive inflammatory state. GH and IGF system gene expression was strongly altered by GH transgenesis and fast growth, both for baseline expression and responses to immune stimulation. Thus, GH transgenesis strongly disrupts muscle immune status and normal GH and IGF system expression responses to immune stimulation.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberjeb173146
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Volume221
Issue number13
Early online date26 Apr 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jul 2018

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Oncorhynchus kisutch
Gene Transfer Techniques
somatotropin
Growth Hormone
hormone
muscle
Muscles
muscles
Growth
somatomedins
Somatomedins
Fishes
genetically modified organisms
Antiviral Agents
fish
immune response
transgenesis
insulin-like growth factor binding proteins
Somatotropin Receptors
Gene Expression

Keywords

  • Growth
  • immunity
  • growth-immune cross-talk
  • skeletal muscle
  • growth hormone
  • insulin-like growth factor
  • transgenesis
  • coho salmon

Cite this

Growth hormone transgenesis in coho salmon disrupts muscle immune function impacting cross-talk with growth systems. / Alzaid, Abdullah; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Devlin, Robert H; Martin, Samuel; MacQueen, Daniel J.

In: Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 221, No. 13, jeb173146, 04.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Alzaid, Abdullah ; Kim, Jin-Hyoung ; Devlin, Robert H ; Martin, Samuel ; MacQueen, Daniel J. / Growth hormone transgenesis in coho salmon disrupts muscle immune function impacting cross-talk with growth systems. In: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2018 ; Vol. 221, No. 13.
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abstract = "Suppression of growth during infection may aid resource allocation towards effective immune function. Past work supporting this hypothesis in salmonid fish revealed an immune-responsive regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, an endocrine pathway downstream of growth hormone (GH). Skeletal muscle is the main target for growth and energetic storage in fish, yet little is known about how its growth is regulated during an immune response. We addressed this knowledge gap by characterizing muscle immune responses in size-matched coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) achieving different growth rates. We compared a wild-type strain with two GH transgenic groups from the same genetic background achieving either maximal or suppressed growth, a design separating GH’s direct effects from its influence on growth rate and nutritional state. Fish were sampled 30h post-injection with PBS (control) or mimics of bacterial or viral infection. We quantified mRNA expression levels for genes from the GH, GH receptor, IGF hormone, IGF1 receptor and IGF-binding protein families, along with immune genes involved in inflammatory or antiviral responses and muscle growth status marker genes. We demonstrate dampened immune function in GH transgenics compared to wild-type. The muscle of GH transgenics achieving rapid growth showed no detectable antiviral response, coupled with evidence of a constitutive inflammatory state. GH and IGF system gene expression was strongly altered by GH transgenesis and fast growth, both for baseline expression and responses to immune stimulation. Thus, GH transgenesis strongly disrupts muscle immune status and normal GH and IGF system expression responses to immune stimulation.",
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N1 - Acknowledgements We thank Dwight Causey (Macqueen lab, University of Aberdeen) for providing critical comments on the manuscript. Funding AA was supported by a PhD studentship from Kuwait University. The research was supported by the Canadian Regulatory System for Biotechnology (RHD, JHK).

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N2 - Suppression of growth during infection may aid resource allocation towards effective immune function. Past work supporting this hypothesis in salmonid fish revealed an immune-responsive regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, an endocrine pathway downstream of growth hormone (GH). Skeletal muscle is the main target for growth and energetic storage in fish, yet little is known about how its growth is regulated during an immune response. We addressed this knowledge gap by characterizing muscle immune responses in size-matched coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) achieving different growth rates. We compared a wild-type strain with two GH transgenic groups from the same genetic background achieving either maximal or suppressed growth, a design separating GH’s direct effects from its influence on growth rate and nutritional state. Fish were sampled 30h post-injection with PBS (control) or mimics of bacterial or viral infection. We quantified mRNA expression levels for genes from the GH, GH receptor, IGF hormone, IGF1 receptor and IGF-binding protein families, along with immune genes involved in inflammatory or antiviral responses and muscle growth status marker genes. We demonstrate dampened immune function in GH transgenics compared to wild-type. The muscle of GH transgenics achieving rapid growth showed no detectable antiviral response, coupled with evidence of a constitutive inflammatory state. GH and IGF system gene expression was strongly altered by GH transgenesis and fast growth, both for baseline expression and responses to immune stimulation. Thus, GH transgenesis strongly disrupts muscle immune status and normal GH and IGF system expression responses to immune stimulation.

AB - Suppression of growth during infection may aid resource allocation towards effective immune function. Past work supporting this hypothesis in salmonid fish revealed an immune-responsive regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, an endocrine pathway downstream of growth hormone (GH). Skeletal muscle is the main target for growth and energetic storage in fish, yet little is known about how its growth is regulated during an immune response. We addressed this knowledge gap by characterizing muscle immune responses in size-matched coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) achieving different growth rates. We compared a wild-type strain with two GH transgenic groups from the same genetic background achieving either maximal or suppressed growth, a design separating GH’s direct effects from its influence on growth rate and nutritional state. Fish were sampled 30h post-injection with PBS (control) or mimics of bacterial or viral infection. We quantified mRNA expression levels for genes from the GH, GH receptor, IGF hormone, IGF1 receptor and IGF-binding protein families, along with immune genes involved in inflammatory or antiviral responses and muscle growth status marker genes. We demonstrate dampened immune function in GH transgenics compared to wild-type. The muscle of GH transgenics achieving rapid growth showed no detectable antiviral response, coupled with evidence of a constitutive inflammatory state. GH and IGF system gene expression was strongly altered by GH transgenesis and fast growth, both for baseline expression and responses to immune stimulation. Thus, GH transgenesis strongly disrupts muscle immune status and normal GH and IGF system expression responses to immune stimulation.

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