Methods. Ten subjects (n=3 men; n=7 women; 42 ±11.8 years of age; BMI 26 ± 5.8 kg/m2 5 ) participated in six one-day independent acute interventions, each meal containing 30 g of protein from buckwheat, fava bean, pea, hemp, lupin and meat (beef). Blood samples were collected during 24-hours and VAS questionnaires over five-hours.
Results. Volunteers consumed significantly higher amounts of most amino acids from the meat meal, and with few exceptions, postprandial composition of plasma amino acids was not significantly different after consuming the plant based meals. Buckwheat meal was the most satious (300 min hunger-scores, p<0.05).Significant increase in GLP-1 plasma (AUC, iAUC p=0.01) found after hemp compared with the other plant-based meals. Decreased plasma ghrelin
concentrations (iAUC p<0.05) found on plant (hemp) vs. meat meal. Several plasma metabolites after hemp meal consumption were associated with hormone trends (partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA): 4- hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, indole 3-pyruvic acid, 5-hydoxytryptophan, genistein and biochanin A with GLP-1, PYY and insulin; 3-hydroxymandelic acid and luteolidin with GLP-1 and ghrelin and 4-hydroxymandelic acid, benzoic acid
and secoisolariciresinol with insulin and ghrelin. Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), (iAUC, p<0.001); and phenylalanine and tyrosine (iAUC, p<0.05) were lower after buckwheat comparison with meat meal.
Conclusion. Plants are valuable sources of amino acids which are promoting satiety. The impact of hemp and buckwheat on GLP-1 and respectively BCAAs should be explored further as could be relevant for aid and prevention of chronic
diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Study registered with clinicaltrial.gov on 12th 21 July 2013, study ID number: NCT01898351
- plant foods
- plant protein
- gut hormones
- phytochemicals bioavailability