High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension

Sebastian Gehlert, Frank Suhr, Katrin Gutsche, Lena Willkomm, Julia Kern, Daniel Jacko, Axel Knicker, Thorsten Schiffer, Henning Wackerhage, Wilhelm Bloch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

How force development and time under tension (TUT) during resistance exercise (RE) influence anabolic signalling of skeletal muscle is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that high force development during RE is more important for post-exercise-induced signalling than submaximal and fatiguing RE with lower force development but similar TUT. Twenty-two male subjects (24 ± 6 years, 181 ± 9 cm, 79 ± 2 kg) performed three distinct RE modes in the fed state with equal TUT but distinct force output: (i) maximal eccentric RE (ECC, n = 7) three sets, eight reps, 100 % eccentric dynamic force; (ii) standard RE (STD, n = 7), three sets, 10 reps, 75 % dynamic force; and (iii) high fatiguing single-set RE (HIT, n = 8), 20 reps, 100 % eccentric-concentric force; vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h after RE, and the signalling of mechanosensitive and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins was determined. The phosphorylation levels of pFAK(Tyr397), pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185), pAKT(Thr308/Ser473), pmTOR(Ser2448), p4E-BP1(Thr37/46), p70s6k(Thr389)/(Ser421/Thr424) and pS6(Ser235/236) were significantly higher in ECC than those in STD and HIT at several time points (P < 0.01). pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185) and pS6(Ser235/236) levels were significantly higher in type II myofibres in ECC compared with STD and HIT. HIT exerted throughout the weakest signalling response. We conclude that high force development during acute RE is superior for anabolic skeletal muscle signalling than fatiguing RE with lower force output but similar TUT. Our results suggest that this response is substantially driven by the higher activation of type II myofibres during RE.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1343-1356
Number of pages14
JournalPflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology
Volume467
Issue number6
Early online date29 Jul 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2015

Fingerprint

Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
70-kDa Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases
Phosphorylation
Biopsy
Quadriceps Muscle
Sirolimus
Chemical activation
Exercise
Proteins

Keywords

  • resistance exercise
  • skeletal muscle signalling
  • mTOR signalling
  • myofibre types
  • mechanical stress
  • protein synthesis

Cite this

High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension. / Gehlert, Sebastian; Suhr, Frank; Gutsche, Katrin; Willkomm, Lena; Kern, Julia; Jacko, Daniel; Knicker, Axel; Schiffer, Thorsten; Wackerhage, Henning; Bloch, Wilhelm.

In: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology, Vol. 467, No. 6, 06.2015, p. 1343-1356.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gehlert, S, Suhr, F, Gutsche, K, Willkomm, L, Kern, J, Jacko, D, Knicker, A, Schiffer, T, Wackerhage, H & Bloch, W 2015, 'High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension', Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology, vol. 467, no. 6, pp. 1343-1356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00424-014-1579-y
Gehlert, Sebastian ; Suhr, Frank ; Gutsche, Katrin ; Willkomm, Lena ; Kern, Julia ; Jacko, Daniel ; Knicker, Axel ; Schiffer, Thorsten ; Wackerhage, Henning ; Bloch, Wilhelm. / High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension. In: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. 2015 ; Vol. 467, No. 6. pp. 1343-1356.
@article{2a20658b234e4403b0a47fb0898a878e,
title = "High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension",
abstract = "How force development and time under tension (TUT) during resistance exercise (RE) influence anabolic signalling of skeletal muscle is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that high force development during RE is more important for post-exercise-induced signalling than submaximal and fatiguing RE with lower force development but similar TUT. Twenty-two male subjects (24 ± 6 years, 181 ± 9 cm, 79 ± 2 kg) performed three distinct RE modes in the fed state with equal TUT but distinct force output: (i) maximal eccentric RE (ECC, n = 7) three sets, eight reps, 100 {\%} eccentric dynamic force; (ii) standard RE (STD, n = 7), three sets, 10 reps, 75 {\%} dynamic force; and (iii) high fatiguing single-set RE (HIT, n = 8), 20 reps, 100 {\%} eccentric-concentric force; vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h after RE, and the signalling of mechanosensitive and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins was determined. The phosphorylation levels of pFAK(Tyr397), pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185), pAKT(Thr308/Ser473), pmTOR(Ser2448), p4E-BP1(Thr37/46), p70s6k(Thr389)/(Ser421/Thr424) and pS6(Ser235/236) were significantly higher in ECC than those in STD and HIT at several time points (P < 0.01). pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185) and pS6(Ser235/236) levels were significantly higher in type II myofibres in ECC compared with STD and HIT. HIT exerted throughout the weakest signalling response. We conclude that high force development during acute RE is superior for anabolic skeletal muscle signalling than fatiguing RE with lower force output but similar TUT. Our results suggest that this response is substantially driven by the higher activation of type II myofibres during RE.",
keywords = "resistance exercise, skeletal muscle signalling, mTOR signalling, myofibre types, mechanical stress, protein synthesis",
author = "Sebastian Gehlert and Frank Suhr and Katrin Gutsche and Lena Willkomm and Julia Kern and Daniel Jacko and Axel Knicker and Thorsten Schiffer and Henning Wackerhage and Wilhelm Bloch",
note = "Acknowledgments The authors thank Katharina Hermanns and the technicians Anika Voss, Bianca Collins and Mojghan Ghilav (Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine) for expert technical assistance. Conflict of interest All authors disclose any professional relationship with companies or manufacturers who will benefit from the results of the present study. Funding This investigation was funded by the Federal Institute of Sports Science (BISP) IIA1-507 070103/09-10. The funders had no role in study design, data collection",
year = "2015",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1007/s00424-014-1579-y",
language = "English",
volume = "467",
pages = "1343--1356",
journal = "Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology",
issn = "0031-6768",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - High force development augments skeletal muscle signalling in resistance exercise modes equalized for time under tension

AU - Gehlert, Sebastian

AU - Suhr, Frank

AU - Gutsche, Katrin

AU - Willkomm, Lena

AU - Kern, Julia

AU - Jacko, Daniel

AU - Knicker, Axel

AU - Schiffer, Thorsten

AU - Wackerhage, Henning

AU - Bloch, Wilhelm

N1 - Acknowledgments The authors thank Katharina Hermanns and the technicians Anika Voss, Bianca Collins and Mojghan Ghilav (Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medicine) for expert technical assistance. Conflict of interest All authors disclose any professional relationship with companies or manufacturers who will benefit from the results of the present study. Funding This investigation was funded by the Federal Institute of Sports Science (BISP) IIA1-507 070103/09-10. The funders had no role in study design, data collection

PY - 2015/6

Y1 - 2015/6

N2 - How force development and time under tension (TUT) during resistance exercise (RE) influence anabolic signalling of skeletal muscle is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that high force development during RE is more important for post-exercise-induced signalling than submaximal and fatiguing RE with lower force development but similar TUT. Twenty-two male subjects (24 ± 6 years, 181 ± 9 cm, 79 ± 2 kg) performed three distinct RE modes in the fed state with equal TUT but distinct force output: (i) maximal eccentric RE (ECC, n = 7) three sets, eight reps, 100 % eccentric dynamic force; (ii) standard RE (STD, n = 7), three sets, 10 reps, 75 % dynamic force; and (iii) high fatiguing single-set RE (HIT, n = 8), 20 reps, 100 % eccentric-concentric force; vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h after RE, and the signalling of mechanosensitive and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins was determined. The phosphorylation levels of pFAK(Tyr397), pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185), pAKT(Thr308/Ser473), pmTOR(Ser2448), p4E-BP1(Thr37/46), p70s6k(Thr389)/(Ser421/Thr424) and pS6(Ser235/236) were significantly higher in ECC than those in STD and HIT at several time points (P < 0.01). pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185) and pS6(Ser235/236) levels were significantly higher in type II myofibres in ECC compared with STD and HIT. HIT exerted throughout the weakest signalling response. We conclude that high force development during acute RE is superior for anabolic skeletal muscle signalling than fatiguing RE with lower force output but similar TUT. Our results suggest that this response is substantially driven by the higher activation of type II myofibres during RE.

AB - How force development and time under tension (TUT) during resistance exercise (RE) influence anabolic signalling of skeletal muscle is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that high force development during RE is more important for post-exercise-induced signalling than submaximal and fatiguing RE with lower force development but similar TUT. Twenty-two male subjects (24 ± 6 years, 181 ± 9 cm, 79 ± 2 kg) performed three distinct RE modes in the fed state with equal TUT but distinct force output: (i) maximal eccentric RE (ECC, n = 7) three sets, eight reps, 100 % eccentric dynamic force; (ii) standard RE (STD, n = 7), three sets, 10 reps, 75 % dynamic force; and (iii) high fatiguing single-set RE (HIT, n = 8), 20 reps, 100 % eccentric-concentric force; vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h after RE, and the signalling of mechanosensitive and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-related proteins was determined. The phosphorylation levels of pFAK(Tyr397), pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185), pAKT(Thr308/Ser473), pmTOR(Ser2448), p4E-BP1(Thr37/46), p70s6k(Thr389)/(Ser421/Thr424) and pS6(Ser235/236) were significantly higher in ECC than those in STD and HIT at several time points (P < 0.01). pJNK(Thr183/Tyr185) and pS6(Ser235/236) levels were significantly higher in type II myofibres in ECC compared with STD and HIT. HIT exerted throughout the weakest signalling response. We conclude that high force development during acute RE is superior for anabolic skeletal muscle signalling than fatiguing RE with lower force output but similar TUT. Our results suggest that this response is substantially driven by the higher activation of type II myofibres during RE.

KW - resistance exercise

KW - skeletal muscle signalling

KW - mTOR signalling

KW - myofibre types

KW - mechanical stress

KW - protein synthesis

U2 - 10.1007/s00424-014-1579-y

DO - 10.1007/s00424-014-1579-y

M3 - Article

C2 - 25070178

VL - 467

SP - 1343

EP - 1356

JO - Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology

JF - Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology

SN - 0031-6768

IS - 6

ER -