HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Mulu Lemlem Desta, Muthupandian Saravanan (Corresponding Author), Haftamu Hilekiros, Atsebaha Gebrekidan Kahsay, Nesredin Futwi Mohamed, Alefech Addisu Gezahegn, Bruno S Lopes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Infants infected during pregnancy or while breastfeeding requires early HIV diagnosis at 6 weeks after birth to identify HIV infection and timely treatment. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV among HIV exposed infants in the Tigray regional state, Northern Ethiopia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 exposed infants born to HIV seropositive mothers from September 01 to December 30, 2016. Convenient consecutive sampling technique was employed to enroll HIV exposed infants from age 6 weeks to 18 months attending prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) clinic at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) site facility in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sociodemographic data and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were collected from each infant and transported by post to Tigray Health Research Institute to detect HIV infection using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were entered into EPI Info version 7, exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. p-value less than 0.05 was deemed to be statistically significant by Fisher's exact test.

RESULTS: Three hundred forty infants (175 males, 165 females) met the criteria for selection during the completion of the study and the overall HIV prevalence was found to be 2.1% (n = 7). The majority of infants were from urban areas (n = 246, 72.4%). 45.5% (5/11, p = 0.001) infants were without ARV prophylaxis, 60% (3/5, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who did not take maternal PMTCT intervention, 43% (3/7, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who were not enrolled to ART care, and 6.1% (4/66, p = 0.029) infants of unmarried mothers showed statistically significant difference.

CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of HIV among exposed infants was high but lower than the Millennium Development Goal targets. In order to eliminate the mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) ARV prophylaxis in infants must be strengthened, and enrollment of HIV positive pregnant women to PMTCT and ART care and treatment is needed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number257
JournalBMC Pediatrics
Volume19
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Jul 2019

Fingerprint

Ethiopia
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Mothers
HIV
HIV Infections
Therapeutics
Illegitimacy
Social Sciences
Breast Feeding
Patient Selection
Pregnant Women
Early Diagnosis

Keywords

  • DBS, RT-PCR
  • HIV exposed infants
  • Prevalence of HIV
  • Risk factor
  • Diagnosis
  • Women
  • DBS
  • RT-PCR
  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Infection
  • TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. / Desta, Mulu Lemlem; Saravanan, Muthupandian (Corresponding Author); Hilekiros, Haftamu; Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan; Mohamed, Nesredin Futwi; Gezahegn, Alefech Addisu; Lopes, Bruno S.

In: BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 19, 257, 26.07.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Desta, Mulu Lemlem ; Saravanan, Muthupandian ; Hilekiros, Haftamu ; Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan ; Mohamed, Nesredin Futwi ; Gezahegn, Alefech Addisu ; Lopes, Bruno S. / HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. In: BMC Pediatrics. 2019 ; Vol. 19.
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title = "HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Infants infected during pregnancy or while breastfeeding requires early HIV diagnosis at 6 weeks after birth to identify HIV infection and timely treatment. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV among HIV exposed infants in the Tigray regional state, Northern Ethiopia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 exposed infants born to HIV seropositive mothers from September 01 to December 30, 2016. Convenient consecutive sampling technique was employed to enroll HIV exposed infants from age 6 weeks to 18 months attending prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) clinic at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) site facility in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sociodemographic data and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were collected from each infant and transported by post to Tigray Health Research Institute to detect HIV infection using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were entered into EPI Info version 7, exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. p-value less than 0.05 was deemed to be statistically significant by Fisher's exact test.RESULTS: Three hundred forty infants (175 males, 165 females) met the criteria for selection during the completion of the study and the overall HIV prevalence was found to be 2.1{\%} (n = 7). The majority of infants were from urban areas (n = 246, 72.4{\%}). 45.5{\%} (5/11, p = 0.001) infants were without ARV prophylaxis, 60{\%} (3/5, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who did not take maternal PMTCT intervention, 43{\%} (3/7, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who were not enrolled to ART care, and 6.1{\%} (4/66, p = 0.029) infants of unmarried mothers showed statistically significant difference.CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of HIV among exposed infants was high but lower than the Millennium Development Goal targets. In order to eliminate the mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) ARV prophylaxis in infants must be strengthened, and enrollment of HIV positive pregnant women to PMTCT and ART care and treatment is needed.",
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author = "Desta, {Mulu Lemlem} and Muthupandian Saravanan and Haftamu Hilekiros and Kahsay, {Atsebaha Gebrekidan} and Mohamed, {Nesredin Futwi} and Gezahegn, {Alefech Addisu} and Lopes, {Bruno S}",
note = "Tigray Regional Health Bureau and Mekelle University funding for this research. The funding body did not have any role in study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation of data or in writing the manuscript.",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

AU - Desta, Mulu Lemlem

AU - Saravanan, Muthupandian

AU - Hilekiros, Haftamu

AU - Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan

AU - Mohamed, Nesredin Futwi

AU - Gezahegn, Alefech Addisu

AU - Lopes, Bruno S

N1 - Tigray Regional Health Bureau and Mekelle University funding for this research. The funding body did not have any role in study design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation of data or in writing the manuscript.

PY - 2019/7/26

Y1 - 2019/7/26

N2 - BACKGROUND: Infants infected during pregnancy or while breastfeeding requires early HIV diagnosis at 6 weeks after birth to identify HIV infection and timely treatment. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV among HIV exposed infants in the Tigray regional state, Northern Ethiopia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 exposed infants born to HIV seropositive mothers from September 01 to December 30, 2016. Convenient consecutive sampling technique was employed to enroll HIV exposed infants from age 6 weeks to 18 months attending prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) clinic at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) site facility in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sociodemographic data and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were collected from each infant and transported by post to Tigray Health Research Institute to detect HIV infection using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were entered into EPI Info version 7, exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. p-value less than 0.05 was deemed to be statistically significant by Fisher's exact test.RESULTS: Three hundred forty infants (175 males, 165 females) met the criteria for selection during the completion of the study and the overall HIV prevalence was found to be 2.1% (n = 7). The majority of infants were from urban areas (n = 246, 72.4%). 45.5% (5/11, p = 0.001) infants were without ARV prophylaxis, 60% (3/5, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who did not take maternal PMTCT intervention, 43% (3/7, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who were not enrolled to ART care, and 6.1% (4/66, p = 0.029) infants of unmarried mothers showed statistically significant difference.CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of HIV among exposed infants was high but lower than the Millennium Development Goal targets. In order to eliminate the mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) ARV prophylaxis in infants must be strengthened, and enrollment of HIV positive pregnant women to PMTCT and ART care and treatment is needed.

AB - BACKGROUND: Infants infected during pregnancy or while breastfeeding requires early HIV diagnosis at 6 weeks after birth to identify HIV infection and timely treatment. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV among HIV exposed infants in the Tigray regional state, Northern Ethiopia.METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 350 exposed infants born to HIV seropositive mothers from September 01 to December 30, 2016. Convenient consecutive sampling technique was employed to enroll HIV exposed infants from age 6 weeks to 18 months attending prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) clinic at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) site facility in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sociodemographic data and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were collected from each infant and transported by post to Tigray Health Research Institute to detect HIV infection using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Data were entered into EPI Info version 7, exported and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. p-value less than 0.05 was deemed to be statistically significant by Fisher's exact test.RESULTS: Three hundred forty infants (175 males, 165 females) met the criteria for selection during the completion of the study and the overall HIV prevalence was found to be 2.1% (n = 7). The majority of infants were from urban areas (n = 246, 72.4%). 45.5% (5/11, p = 0.001) infants were without ARV prophylaxis, 60% (3/5, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who did not take maternal PMTCT intervention, 43% (3/7, p = 0.001) infants born to mothers who were not enrolled to ART care, and 6.1% (4/66, p = 0.029) infants of unmarried mothers showed statistically significant difference.CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence of HIV among exposed infants was high but lower than the Millennium Development Goal targets. In order to eliminate the mother to child HIV transmission (MTCT) ARV prophylaxis in infants must be strengthened, and enrollment of HIV positive pregnant women to PMTCT and ART care and treatment is needed.

KW - DBS, RT-PCR

KW - HIV exposed infants

KW - Prevalence of HIV

KW - Risk factor

KW - Diagnosis

KW - Women

KW - DBS

KW - RT-PCR

KW - Antiretroviral therapy

KW - Infection

KW - TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/hiv-prevalence-risk-factors-infants-born-hiv-positive-mothers-measured-dried-blood-spot-realtime-pcr

U2 - 10.1186/s12887-019-1636-y

DO - 10.1186/s12887-019-1636-y

M3 - Article

VL - 19

JO - BMC Pediatrics

JF - BMC Pediatrics

SN - 1471-2431

M1 - 257

ER -