Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor α (rTNFα) and rainbow trout macrophage activating factor (postulated γ-interferon (γ-IFN) analogue) synergised to elevate the respiratory burst activity of trout macrophages. This elevated response may parallel phenomena described in mammals where TNFα and γ-IFN commonly synergise. Human rTNFα also synergised with mitogenic stimuli to heighten proliferation responses of trout head kidney leucocytes. These data are indicative of a conserved TNFα receptor on trout leucocytes (and possibly the TNFα molecule itself) and support the notion of an interactive cytokine network regulating immune responses in fish.
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