Hydrological controls on nutrient concentrations and fluxes in agricultural catchments

C. Petry, Christopher Soulsby, I. Malcolm, R. Malcolm, A. Youngson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

77 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Like many streams draining intensively farmed parts of lowland Scotland, water quality in the Newmills burn, Aberdeenshire, is characterized by relatively high nutrient levels; mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N are 6.09 mg l(-1) and 0.28 mg l(-1), respectively, whilst average PO4-P concentrations reach 0.06 mg l(-1). Nutrient concentrations vary spatially and temporally with levels being highest under arable farming during the autumn and winter. Annual fluxes from the 14.5 km(2) catchment are estimated at 25.67 and 1.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for NO3-N and NH3-N, respectively, and 0.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for PO,-P. Hydrological controls exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilized by overland flow in riparian areas, particularly where the soils have been compacted by livestock or farm machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, provide large contributions of NO3-N on the recession limb of hydrological events. In contrast, groundwater inputs generally have lower NO3 concentrations implying that denitrification may be a pathway of N loss in the saturated zone. Approximately 75% of the N loss for the catchment occurs during the autumn and early winter when high flows dominate the hydrological regime. The close coupling of hydrological pathways and biogeochemical processes has major implications for catchment management strategies such as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) as it is likely that significant groundwater stores with long residence times will continue to cause N losses before water quality improvements become apparent. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-110
Number of pages15
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume294
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • nutrients
  • hydrology
  • nitrate
  • phosphate
  • mixing models
  • DIFFERENT SPATIAL SCALES
  • WATER-QUALITY
  • NE SCOTLAND
  • LAND-USE
  • CHEMISTRY
  • NITROGEN
  • ZONE
  • DEE

Cite this

Hydrological controls on nutrient concentrations and fluxes in agricultural catchments. / Petry, C.; Soulsby, Christopher; Malcolm, I.; Malcolm, R.; Youngson, A.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 294, No. 1-3, 2002, p. 95-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Petry, C. ; Soulsby, Christopher ; Malcolm, I. ; Malcolm, R. ; Youngson, A. / Hydrological controls on nutrient concentrations and fluxes in agricultural catchments. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2002 ; Vol. 294, No. 1-3. pp. 95-110.
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abstract = "Like many streams draining intensively farmed parts of lowland Scotland, water quality in the Newmills burn, Aberdeenshire, is characterized by relatively high nutrient levels; mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N are 6.09 mg l(-1) and 0.28 mg l(-1), respectively, whilst average PO4-P concentrations reach 0.06 mg l(-1). Nutrient concentrations vary spatially and temporally with levels being highest under arable farming during the autumn and winter. Annual fluxes from the 14.5 km(2) catchment are estimated at 25.67 and 1.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for NO3-N and NH3-N, respectively, and 0.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for PO,-P. Hydrological controls exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilized by overland flow in riparian areas, particularly where the soils have been compacted by livestock or farm machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, provide large contributions of NO3-N on the recession limb of hydrological events. In contrast, groundwater inputs generally have lower NO3 concentrations implying that denitrification may be a pathway of N loss in the saturated zone. Approximately 75{\%} of the N loss for the catchment occurs during the autumn and early winter when high flows dominate the hydrological regime. The close coupling of hydrological pathways and biogeochemical processes has major implications for catchment management strategies such as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) as it is likely that significant groundwater stores with long residence times will continue to cause N losses before water quality improvements become apparent. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.",
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AU - Petry, C.

AU - Soulsby, Christopher

AU - Malcolm, I.

AU - Malcolm, R.

AU - Youngson, A.

PY - 2002

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N2 - Like many streams draining intensively farmed parts of lowland Scotland, water quality in the Newmills burn, Aberdeenshire, is characterized by relatively high nutrient levels; mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N are 6.09 mg l(-1) and 0.28 mg l(-1), respectively, whilst average PO4-P concentrations reach 0.06 mg l(-1). Nutrient concentrations vary spatially and temporally with levels being highest under arable farming during the autumn and winter. Annual fluxes from the 14.5 km(2) catchment are estimated at 25.67 and 1.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for NO3-N and NH3-N, respectively, and 0.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for PO,-P. Hydrological controls exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilized by overland flow in riparian areas, particularly where the soils have been compacted by livestock or farm machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, provide large contributions of NO3-N on the recession limb of hydrological events. In contrast, groundwater inputs generally have lower NO3 concentrations implying that denitrification may be a pathway of N loss in the saturated zone. Approximately 75% of the N loss for the catchment occurs during the autumn and early winter when high flows dominate the hydrological regime. The close coupling of hydrological pathways and biogeochemical processes has major implications for catchment management strategies such as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) as it is likely that significant groundwater stores with long residence times will continue to cause N losses before water quality improvements become apparent. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - Like many streams draining intensively farmed parts of lowland Scotland, water quality in the Newmills burn, Aberdeenshire, is characterized by relatively high nutrient levels; mean concentrations of NO3-N and NH3-N are 6.09 mg l(-1) and 0.28 mg l(-1), respectively, whilst average PO4-P concentrations reach 0.06 mg l(-1). Nutrient concentrations vary spatially and temporally with levels being highest under arable farming during the autumn and winter. Annual fluxes from the 14.5 km(2) catchment are estimated at 25.67 and 1.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for NO3-N and NH3-N, respectively, and 0.26 kg ha(-1) a(-1) for PO,-P. Hydrological controls exert a strong influence on both nutrient concentrations and fluxes. Over short timescales nutrient concentrations and fluxes are greatest during storm events when PO4-P and NH3-N are mobilized by overland flow in riparian areas, particularly where the soils have been compacted by livestock or farm machinery. Delivery of deeper soil water in subsurface storm flow, facilitated by agricultural under-drainage, provide large contributions of NO3-N on the recession limb of hydrological events. In contrast, groundwater inputs generally have lower NO3 concentrations implying that denitrification may be a pathway of N loss in the saturated zone. Approximately 75% of the N loss for the catchment occurs during the autumn and early winter when high flows dominate the hydrological regime. The close coupling of hydrological pathways and biogeochemical processes has major implications for catchment management strategies such as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) as it is likely that significant groundwater stores with long residence times will continue to cause N losses before water quality improvements become apparent. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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KW - hydrology

KW - nitrate

KW - phosphate

KW - mixing models

KW - DIFFERENT SPATIAL SCALES

KW - WATER-QUALITY

KW - NE SCOTLAND

KW - LAND-USE

KW - CHEMISTRY

KW - NITROGEN

KW - ZONE

KW - DEE

U2 - 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00058-X

DO - 10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00058-X

M3 - Article

VL - 294

SP - 95

EP - 110

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

IS - 1-3

ER -