A noncontact method to identify sparsely distributed plastic pellets is proposed by integrating holography and Raman spectroscopy in this study. Polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) resin pellets with a size of 3 mm located in a 20 cm water channel were illuminated using a collimated continuous wave laser beam with a diameter of 4 mm and wavelength of 785 nm. The same laser beam was used to take a holographic image and Raman spectrum of a pellet to identify the shape, size, and composition of material. Using the compact system, the morphological and chemical analysis of pellets in a large volume of water was performed. The reported method demonstrates the potential for noncontact continuous in situ monitoring of microplastics in water without collection and separation.