Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape

A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies

Denis A. Baird, Daniel S. Evans, Frederick K. Kamanu, Jennifer S. Gregory, Fiona R. Saunders, Claudiu V. Giuraniuc, Rebecca J. Barr, Richard M. Aspden, Deborah Jenkins, Douglas P Kiel, Eric S. Orwoll, Steven R. Cummings, Nancy E. Lane, Benjamin H. Mullin, Frances MK Williams, J. Brent Richards, Scott G Wilson, Tim D. Spector, Benjamin G. Faber, Deborah A. Lawlor & 10 others Elin Grundberg, Claes Ohlsson, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Terence D. Capellini, Daniel Richard, Thomas J Beck, David M. Evans, Lavinia Paternoster, David Karasik, Jonathan H. Tobias

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)
3 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta‐analysis of dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10−9, adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look‐up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9PTHrPRUNX1NKX3‐2FGFR4DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis‐regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC‐seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. 
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-251
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Bone and Mineral Research
Volume34
Issue number2
Early online date26 Nov 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019

Fingerprint

Hip
Hip Osteoarthritis
Osteoporotic Fractures
Hip Fractures
X-Rays
Osteogenesis
Femur
Osteoporosis
Chromatin
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
Longitudinal Studies
Software
Extremities
Parents
Growth
Genes

Keywords

  • hip shape
  • osteoarthritis
  • hip fracture risk
  • DXA
  • GWAS
  • HIP FRACTURE RISK
  • HIP SHAPE
  • OSTEOARTHRITIS
  • ABNORMALITIES
  • NONCODING ELEMENTS
  • SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI
  • RISK
  • INDIAN HEDGEHOG
  • PREDICTION
  • FACTOR SOX9
  • PARATHYROID-HORMONE
  • DIFFERENTIATION

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape : A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies. / Baird, Denis A.; Evans, Daniel S.; Kamanu, Frederick K.; Gregory, Jennifer S.; Saunders, Fiona R.; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; Barr, Rebecca J.; Aspden, Richard M.; Jenkins, Deborah; Kiel, Douglas P; Orwoll, Eric S.; Cummings, Steven R.; Lane, Nancy E.; Mullin, Benjamin H.; Williams, Frances MK; Richards, J. Brent; Wilson, Scott G; Spector, Tim D.; Faber, Benjamin G.; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Grundberg, Elin; Ohlsson, Claes; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Capellini, Terence D.; Richard, Daniel; Beck, Thomas J; Evans, David M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Karasik, David; Tobias, Jonathan H. (Corresponding Author).

In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Vol. 34, No. 2, 02.2019, p. 241-251.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Baird, DA, Evans, DS, Kamanu, FK, Gregory, JS, Saunders, FR, Giuraniuc, CV, Barr, RJ, Aspden, RM, Jenkins, D, Kiel, DP, Orwoll, ES, Cummings, SR, Lane, NE, Mullin, BH, Williams, FMK, Richards, JB, Wilson, SG, Spector, TD, Faber, BG, Lawlor, DA, Grundberg, E, Ohlsson, C, Pettersson-Kymmer, U, Capellini, TD, Richard, D, Beck, TJ, Evans, DM, Paternoster, L, Karasik, D & Tobias, JH 2019, 'Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape: A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies', Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 241-251. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.3605
Baird, Denis A. ; Evans, Daniel S. ; Kamanu, Frederick K. ; Gregory, Jennifer S. ; Saunders, Fiona R. ; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V. ; Barr, Rebecca J. ; Aspden, Richard M. ; Jenkins, Deborah ; Kiel, Douglas P ; Orwoll, Eric S. ; Cummings, Steven R. ; Lane, Nancy E. ; Mullin, Benjamin H. ; Williams, Frances MK ; Richards, J. Brent ; Wilson, Scott G ; Spector, Tim D. ; Faber, Benjamin G. ; Lawlor, Deborah A. ; Grundberg, Elin ; Ohlsson, Claes ; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika ; Capellini, Terence D. ; Richard, Daniel ; Beck, Thomas J ; Evans, David M. ; Paternoster, Lavinia ; Karasik, David ; Tobias, Jonathan H. / Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape : A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies. In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2019 ; Vol. 34, No. 2. pp. 241-251.
@article{066300a47c6e4bb58eb7dfc32b40bdb8,
title = "Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape: A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies",
abstract = "We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta‐analysis of dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10−9, adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look‐up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3‐2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis‐regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC‐seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. ",
keywords = "hip shape, osteoarthritis, hip fracture risk, DXA, GWAS, HIP FRACTURE RISK, HIP SHAPE, OSTEOARTHRITIS, ABNORMALITIES, NONCODING ELEMENTS, SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI, RISK, INDIAN HEDGEHOG, PREDICTION, FACTOR SOX9, PARATHYROID-HORMONE, DIFFERENTIATION",
author = "Baird, {Denis A.} and Evans, {Daniel S.} and Kamanu, {Frederick K.} and Gregory, {Jennifer S.} and Saunders, {Fiona R.} and Giuraniuc, {Claudiu V.} and Barr, {Rebecca J.} and Aspden, {Richard M.} and Deborah Jenkins and Kiel, {Douglas P} and Orwoll, {Eric S.} and Cummings, {Steven R.} and Lane, {Nancy E.} and Mullin, {Benjamin H.} and Williams, {Frances MK} and Richards, {J. Brent} and Wilson, {Scott G} and Spector, {Tim D.} and Faber, {Benjamin G.} and Lawlor, {Deborah A.} and Elin Grundberg and Claes Ohlsson and Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer and Capellini, {Terence D.} and Daniel Richard and Beck, {Thomas J} and Evans, {David M.} and Lavinia Paternoster and David Karasik and Tobias, {Jonathan H.}",
note = "This study was funded by Arthritis Research UK project grant 20244, which also provided salary funding for DB and CVG. LP works in the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, a UK MRC‐funded unit (MC_ UU_ 12013/4 & MC_UU_12013/5). ALSPAC: We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists, and nurses. ALSPAC data collection was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grants WT092830M; WT088806; WT102215/2/13/2), UK Medical Research Council (G1001357), and University of Bristol. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. Framingham Heart Study: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study is supported by grants from the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases and the National Institute on Aging (R01 AR41398, R01 AR 061162, R01 AR050066, and R01 AR061445). The analyses reflect intellectual input and resource development from the Framingham Heart Study investigators participating in the SNP Health Association Resource project. The Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health and Boston University School of Medicine were supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study (N01‐HC‐25195) and its contract with Affymetrix, Inc., for genotyping services (N02‐HL‐6‐4278). Analyses reflect intellectual input and resource development from the Framingham Heart Study investigators participating in the SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) project. A portion of this research was conducted using the Linux Cluster for Genetic Analysis (LinGA‐II) funded by the Robert Dawson Evans Endowment of the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center. DK was also supported by Israel Science Foundation grant #1283/14. TDC and DR thank Dr Claire Reardon and the entire Harvard University Bauer Core facility for assistance with ATAC‐seq next generation sequencing. This work was funded in part by the Harvard University Milton Fund, NSF (BCS‐1518596), and NIH NIAMS (1R01AR070139‐01A1) to TDC. MrOS: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) provides funding for the MrOS ancillary study “Replication of candidate gene associations and bone strength phenotype in MrOS” under the grant number R01 AR051124. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) provides funding for the MrOS ancillary study “GWAS in MrOS and SOF” under the grant number RC2 AR058973. SOF: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) provides support under the following grant numbers: R01 AG005407, R01 AR35582, R01 AR35583, R01 AR35584, R01 AG005394, R01 AG027574, and R01 AG027576. TwinsUK: The study was funded by the Wellcome Trust; European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007‐2013). The study also receives support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)‐funded BioResource, Clinical Research Facility, and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. SNP genotyping was performed by The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and National Eye Institute via NIH/CIDR. This study was also supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (project grants 1048216 and 1127156), the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital RAC (SGW), and the iVEC/Pawsey Supercomputing Centre (project grants Pawsey0162 and Director2025 [SGW]). The salary of BHM was supported by a Raine Medical Research Foundation Priming Grant. The Ume{\aa} Fracture and Osteoporosis Study (UFO) is supported by the Swedish Research Council (K20006‐72X‐20155013), the Swedish Sports Research Council (87/06), the Swedish Society of Medicine, the Kempe‐Foundation (JCK‐1021), and by grants from the Medical Faculty of Ume{\aa} Unviersity (ALFVLL:968:22‐2005, ALFVL:‐937‐2006, ALFVLL:223:11‐2007, and ALFVLL:78151‐2009) and from the county council of V{\"a}sterbotten (Spjutspetsanslag VLL:159:33‐2007). This publication is the work of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the views of any funders. None of the funders had any influence on data collection, analysis, interpretation of the results, or writing of the paper. DB will serve as the guarantor of the paper. Authors’ roles: Study conception and design: DAB, JSG, RMA, LP, DK, and JHT. Data collection: DJ, DPK, ESO, SRC, NEL, BHM, FMKW, JBR, SGW, TDC, BGF, DAL, CO, and UP‐L. Data analysis: DAB, DSE, FKK, JSG, FRS, CVG, RJB, RMA, SGW, EG, TDC, DR, and TB. Data interpretation: JSG, RMA, TDC, DR, DME, LP, DK, and JHT. Drafting manuscript: DAB and JHT. Revising manuscript content: JHT. All authors approved the final version of manuscript. DAB takes responsibility for the integrity of the data analysis.",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1002/jbmr.3605",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "241--251",
journal = "Journal of Bone and Mineral Research",
issn = "0884-0431",
publisher = "WILEY-BLACKWELL",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Identification of Novel Loci Associated With Hip Shape

T2 - A Meta‐Analysis of Genomewide Association Studies

AU - Baird, Denis A.

AU - Evans, Daniel S.

AU - Kamanu, Frederick K.

AU - Gregory, Jennifer S.

AU - Saunders, Fiona R.

AU - Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.

AU - Barr, Rebecca J.

AU - Aspden, Richard M.

AU - Jenkins, Deborah

AU - Kiel, Douglas P

AU - Orwoll, Eric S.

AU - Cummings, Steven R.

AU - Lane, Nancy E.

AU - Mullin, Benjamin H.

AU - Williams, Frances MK

AU - Richards, J. Brent

AU - Wilson, Scott G

AU - Spector, Tim D.

AU - Faber, Benjamin G.

AU - Lawlor, Deborah A.

AU - Grundberg, Elin

AU - Ohlsson, Claes

AU - Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika

AU - Capellini, Terence D.

AU - Richard, Daniel

AU - Beck, Thomas J

AU - Evans, David M.

AU - Paternoster, Lavinia

AU - Karasik, David

AU - Tobias, Jonathan H.

N1 - This study was funded by Arthritis Research UK project grant 20244, which also provided salary funding for DB and CVG. LP works in the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, a UK MRC‐funded unit (MC_ UU_ 12013/4 & MC_UU_12013/5). ALSPAC: We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists, and nurses. ALSPAC data collection was supported by the Wellcome Trust (grants WT092830M; WT088806; WT102215/2/13/2), UK Medical Research Council (G1001357), and University of Bristol. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. Framingham Heart Study: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study is supported by grants from the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases and the National Institute on Aging (R01 AR41398, R01 AR 061162, R01 AR050066, and R01 AR061445). The analyses reflect intellectual input and resource development from the Framingham Heart Study investigators participating in the SNP Health Association Resource project. The Framingham Heart Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health and Boston University School of Medicine were supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study (N01‐HC‐25195) and its contract with Affymetrix, Inc., for genotyping services (N02‐HL‐6‐4278). Analyses reflect intellectual input and resource development from the Framingham Heart Study investigators participating in the SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) project. A portion of this research was conducted using the Linux Cluster for Genetic Analysis (LinGA‐II) funded by the Robert Dawson Evans Endowment of the Department of Medicine at Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center. DK was also supported by Israel Science Foundation grant #1283/14. TDC and DR thank Dr Claire Reardon and the entire Harvard University Bauer Core facility for assistance with ATAC‐seq next generation sequencing. This work was funded in part by the Harvard University Milton Fund, NSF (BCS‐1518596), and NIH NIAMS (1R01AR070139‐01A1) to TDC. MrOS: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The following institutes provide support: the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and NIH Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AG027810, U01 AG042124, U01 AG042139, U01 AG042140, U01 AG042143, U01 AG042145, U01 AG042168, U01 AR066160, and UL1 TR000128. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) provides funding for the MrOS ancillary study “Replication of candidate gene associations and bone strength phenotype in MrOS” under the grant number R01 AR051124. The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) provides funding for the MrOS ancillary study “GWAS in MrOS and SOF” under the grant number RC2 AR058973. SOF: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The National Institute on Aging (NIA) provides support under the following grant numbers: R01 AG005407, R01 AR35582, R01 AR35583, R01 AR35584, R01 AG005394, R01 AG027574, and R01 AG027576. TwinsUK: The study was funded by the Wellcome Trust; European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007‐2013). The study also receives support from the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR)‐funded BioResource, Clinical Research Facility, and Biomedical Research Centre based at Guy's and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King's College London. SNP genotyping was performed by The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and National Eye Institute via NIH/CIDR. This study was also supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (project grants 1048216 and 1127156), the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital RAC (SGW), and the iVEC/Pawsey Supercomputing Centre (project grants Pawsey0162 and Director2025 [SGW]). The salary of BHM was supported by a Raine Medical Research Foundation Priming Grant. The Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis Study (UFO) is supported by the Swedish Research Council (K20006‐72X‐20155013), the Swedish Sports Research Council (87/06), the Swedish Society of Medicine, the Kempe‐Foundation (JCK‐1021), and by grants from the Medical Faculty of Umeå Unviersity (ALFVLL:968:22‐2005, ALFVL:‐937‐2006, ALFVLL:223:11‐2007, and ALFVLL:78151‐2009) and from the county council of Västerbotten (Spjutspetsanslag VLL:159:33‐2007). This publication is the work of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the views of any funders. None of the funders had any influence on data collection, analysis, interpretation of the results, or writing of the paper. DB will serve as the guarantor of the paper. Authors’ roles: Study conception and design: DAB, JSG, RMA, LP, DK, and JHT. Data collection: DJ, DPK, ESO, SRC, NEL, BHM, FMKW, JBR, SGW, TDC, BGF, DAL, CO, and UP‐L. Data analysis: DAB, DSE, FKK, JSG, FRS, CVG, RJB, RMA, SGW, EG, TDC, DR, and TB. Data interpretation: JSG, RMA, TDC, DR, DME, LP, DK, and JHT. Drafting manuscript: DAB and JHT. Revising manuscript content: JHT. All authors approved the final version of manuscript. DAB takes responsibility for the integrity of the data analysis.

PY - 2019/2

Y1 - 2019/2

N2 - We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta‐analysis of dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10−9, adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look‐up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3‐2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis‐regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC‐seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. 

AB - We aimed to report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) meta‐analysis of dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA)‐derived hip shape, which is thought to be related to the risk of both hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. Ten hip shape modes (HSMs) were derived by statistical shape modeling using SHAPE software, from hip DXA scans in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; adult females), TwinsUK (mixed sex), Framingham Osteoporosis Study (FOS; mixed), Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study (MrOS), and Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF; females) (total N = 15,934). Associations were adjusted for age, sex, and ancestry. Five genomewide significant (p < 5 × 10−9, adjusted for 10 independent outcomes) single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with HSM1, and three SNPs with HSM2. One SNP, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs2158915 associated with HSM1, was associated with HSM5 at genomewide significance. In a look‐up of previous GWASs, three of the identified SNPs were associated with hip osteoarthritis, one with hip fracture, and five with height. Seven SNPs were within 200 kb of genes involved in endochondral bone formation, namely SOX9, PTHrP, RUNX1, NKX3‐2, FGFR4, DICER1, and HHIP. The SNP adjacent to DICER1 also showed osteoblast cis‐regulatory activity of GSC, in which mutations have previously been reported to cause hip dysplasia. For three of the lead SNPs, SNPs in high LD (r2 > 0.5) were identified, which intersected with open chromatin sites as detected by ATAC‐seq performed on embryonic mouse proximal femora. In conclusion, we identified eight SNPs independently associated with hip shape, most of which were associated with height and/or mapped close to endochondral bone formation genes, consistent with a contribution of processes involved in limb growth to hip shape and pathological sequelae. These findings raise the possibility that genetic studies of hip shape might help in understanding potential pathways involved in hip osteoarthritis and hip fracture. 

KW - hip shape

KW - osteoarthritis

KW - hip fracture risk

KW - DXA

KW - GWAS

KW - HIP FRACTURE RISK

KW - HIP SHAPE

KW - OSTEOARTHRITIS

KW - ABNORMALITIES

KW - NONCODING ELEMENTS

KW - SUSCEPTIBILITY LOCI

KW - RISK

KW - INDIAN HEDGEHOG

KW - PREDICTION

KW - FACTOR SOX9

KW - PARATHYROID-HORMONE

KW - DIFFERENTIATION

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85057443312&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/identification-novel-loci-associated-hip-shape-metaanalysis-genomewide-association-studies

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/identification-novel-loci-associated-hip-shape-metaanalysis-genomewide-association-studies-1

U2 - 10.1002/jbmr.3605

DO - 10.1002/jbmr.3605

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 241

EP - 251

JO - Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

JF - Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

SN - 0884-0431

IS - 2

ER -