Igneous sills as a record of horizontal shortening

The San Rafael subvolcanic field, Utah

R. J. Walker*, D. Healy, T. M. Kawanzaruwa, K. A. Wright, R. W. England, K. J.W. McCaffrey, A. A. Bubeck, T. L. Stephens, N. J.C. Farrell, T. G. Blenkinsop

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Igneous sills can facilitate significant lateral magma transport in the crust; therefore, it is important to constrain controls on their formation and propagation. Close spatial association between sills and dikes in layered (sedimentary) host rocks has led to a number of sill emplacement mechanisms that involve stress rotation related to layering; from horizontal extension and dike emplacement, to horizontal compression and sill emplacement. Here, we used field observations in the San Rafael subvolcanic field (Utah, USA), on the Colorado Plateau, supported by mechanical modeling, to show that layering is not the dominant control in all cases of sill formation. We found no compelling evidence of large sills fed by dikes; all observed cases showed that either dikes cut sills, or vice versa. Local sill contacts activate and follow host layer interfaces, but regionally, sills cut the stratigraphy at a low angle. The sills cut and are cut by reverse faults (1-3 m displacement) and related fractures that accommodate horizontal shortening. Minor sill networks resemble extension vein meshes and indicate that horizontal and inclined geometries were formed during coaxial horizontal shortening and vertical thickening. Although sills elsewhere may be related to mechanical layering during tectonic quiescence, our mechanical models show that the observed San Rafael subvolcanic field geometries are favored in the upper crust during mild horizontal shortening. We propose that sill geometry provides an indication of regional stress states during emplacement, and not all sill geometry is a response to bedding. Constraining sill geometry may therefore present a useful tool in plate-tectonic studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1052-1070
Number of pages19
JournalBulletin of the Geological Society of America
Volume129
Issue number9-10
Early online date7 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2017

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sill
dike
emplacement
geometry
reverse fault
plate tectonics
upper crust
host rock
sedimentary rock
stratigraphy
magma
compression
plateau

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology

Cite this

Walker, R. J., Healy, D., Kawanzaruwa, T. M., Wright, K. A., England, R. W., McCaffrey, K. J. W., ... Blenkinsop, T. G. (2017). Igneous sills as a record of horizontal shortening: The San Rafael subvolcanic field, Utah. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 129(9-10), 1052-1070. https://doi.org/10.1130/B31671.1

Igneous sills as a record of horizontal shortening : The San Rafael subvolcanic field, Utah. / Walker, R. J.; Healy, D.; Kawanzaruwa, T. M.; Wright, K. A.; England, R. W.; McCaffrey, K. J.W.; Bubeck, A. A.; Stephens, T. L.; Farrell, N. J.C.; Blenkinsop, T. G.

In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. 129, No. 9-10, 01.09.2017, p. 1052-1070.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Walker, RJ, Healy, D, Kawanzaruwa, TM, Wright, KA, England, RW, McCaffrey, KJW, Bubeck, AA, Stephens, TL, Farrell, NJC & Blenkinsop, TG 2017, 'Igneous sills as a record of horizontal shortening: The San Rafael subvolcanic field, Utah', Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. 129, no. 9-10, pp. 1052-1070. https://doi.org/10.1130/B31671.1
Walker, R. J. ; Healy, D. ; Kawanzaruwa, T. M. ; Wright, K. A. ; England, R. W. ; McCaffrey, K. J.W. ; Bubeck, A. A. ; Stephens, T. L. ; Farrell, N. J.C. ; Blenkinsop, T. G. / Igneous sills as a record of horizontal shortening : The San Rafael subvolcanic field, Utah. In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 2017 ; Vol. 129, No. 9-10. pp. 1052-1070.
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abstract = "Igneous sills can facilitate significant lateral magma transport in the crust; therefore, it is important to constrain controls on their formation and propagation. Close spatial association between sills and dikes in layered (sedimentary) host rocks has led to a number of sill emplacement mechanisms that involve stress rotation related to layering; from horizontal extension and dike emplacement, to horizontal compression and sill emplacement. Here, we used field observations in the San Rafael subvolcanic field (Utah, USA), on the Colorado Plateau, supported by mechanical modeling, to show that layering is not the dominant control in all cases of sill formation. We found no compelling evidence of large sills fed by dikes; all observed cases showed that either dikes cut sills, or vice versa. Local sill contacts activate and follow host layer interfaces, but regionally, sills cut the stratigraphy at a low angle. The sills cut and are cut by reverse faults (1-3 m displacement) and related fractures that accommodate horizontal shortening. Minor sill networks resemble extension vein meshes and indicate that horizontal and inclined geometries were formed during coaxial horizontal shortening and vertical thickening. Although sills elsewhere may be related to mechanical layering during tectonic quiescence, our mechanical models show that the observed San Rafael subvolcanic field geometries are favored in the upper crust during mild horizontal shortening. We propose that sill geometry provides an indication of regional stress states during emplacement, and not all sill geometry is a response to bedding. Constraining sill geometry may therefore present a useful tool in plate-tectonic studies.",
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