Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar

A role in foci persistence?

Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Sandra Telfer, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Michel A. Ranjalahy, Fehivola Andriamiarimanana, Corinne Rahaingosoamamitiana, Lila Rahalison, Ronan Jambou*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. Methodology/Principal Findings: We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Conclusion/Significance: Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere38630
Number of pages8
JournalPloS ONE
Volume7
Issue number6
Early online date12 Jun 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2012

Fingerprint

Madagascar
Rattus rattus
Plague
plague
Rats
immune response
rats
Infection
infection
Immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin G
villages
Yersinia pestis
disease reservoirs
antibodies
Antibody Formation
Siphonaptera
Epidemiology
diagnostic techniques
Antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Andrianaivoarimanana, V., Telfer, S., Rajerison, M., Ranjalahy, M. A., Andriamiarimanana, F., Rahaingosoamamitiana, C., ... Jambou, R. (2012). Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A role in foci persistence? PloS ONE, 7(6), [e38630]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038630

Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar : A role in foci persistence? / Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Ranjalahy, Michel A.; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne; Rahalison, Lila; Jambou, Ronan.

In: PloS ONE, Vol. 7, No. 6, e38630, 18.06.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Andrianaivoarimanana, V, Telfer, S, Rajerison, M, Ranjalahy, MA, Andriamiarimanana, F, Rahaingosoamamitiana, C, Rahalison, L & Jambou, R 2012, 'Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A role in foci persistence?', PloS ONE, vol. 7, no. 6, e38630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038630
Andrianaivoarimanana V, Telfer S, Rajerison M, Ranjalahy MA, Andriamiarimanana F, Rahaingosoamamitiana C et al. Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A role in foci persistence? PloS ONE. 2012 Jun 18;7(6). e38630. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0038630
Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy ; Telfer, Sandra ; Rajerison, Minoarisoa ; Ranjalahy, Michel A. ; Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola ; Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne ; Rahalison, Lila ; Jambou, Ronan. / Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar : A role in foci persistence?. In: PloS ONE. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 6.
@article{91b872e059c246fd8469d45d85a5f177,
title = "Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar: A role in foci persistence?",
abstract = "Background: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. Methodology/Principal Findings: We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10{\%} of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Conclusion/Significance: Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.",
author = "Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana and Sandra Telfer and Minoarisoa Rajerison and Ranjalahy, {Michel A.} and Fehivola Andriamiarimanana and Corinne Rahaingosoamamitiana and Lila Rahalison and Ronan Jambou",
note = "Acknowledgements We thank the technicians of the Plague and Immunology Unit for their technical assistance.",
year = "2012",
month = "6",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0038630",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
journal = "PloS ONE",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Immune responses to plague infection in wild Rattus rattus, in Madagascar

T2 - A role in foci persistence?

AU - Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy

AU - Telfer, Sandra

AU - Rajerison, Minoarisoa

AU - Ranjalahy, Michel A.

AU - Andriamiarimanana, Fehivola

AU - Rahaingosoamamitiana, Corinne

AU - Rahalison, Lila

AU - Jambou, Ronan

N1 - Acknowledgements We thank the technicians of the Plague and Immunology Unit for their technical assistance.

PY - 2012/6/18

Y1 - 2012/6/18

N2 - Background: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. Methodology/Principal Findings: We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Conclusion/Significance: Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

AB - Background: Plague is endemic within the central highlands of Madagascar, where its main reservoir is the black rat, Rattus rattus. Typically this species is considered susceptible to plague, rapidly dying after infection inducing the spread of infected fleas and, therefore, dissemination of the disease to humans. However, persistence of transmission foci in the same area from year to year, supposes mechanisms of maintenance among which rat immune responses could play a major role. Immunity against plague and subsequent rat survival could play an important role in the stabilization of the foci. In this study, we aimed to investigate serological responses to plague in wild black rats from endemic areas of Madagascar. In addition, we evaluate the use of a recently developed rapid serological diagnostic test to investigate the immune response of potential reservoir hosts in plague foci. Methodology/Principal Findings: We experimentally infected wild rats with Yersinia pestis to investigate short and long-term antibody responses. Anti-F1 IgM and IgG were detected to evaluate this antibody response. High levels of anti-F1 IgM and IgG were found in rats one and three weeks respectively after challenge, with responses greatly differing between villages. Plateau in anti-F1 IgM and IgG responses were reached for as few as 500 and 1500 colony forming units (cfu) inoculated respectively. More than 10% of rats were able to maintain anti-F1 responses for more than one year. This anti-F1 response was conveniently followed using dipsticks. Conclusion/Significance: Inoculation of very few bacteria is sufficient to induce high immune response in wild rats, allowing their survival after infection. A great heterogeneity of rat immune responses was found within and between villages which could heavily impact on plague epidemiology. In addition, results indicate that, in the field, anti-F1 dipsticks are efficient to investigate plague outbreaks several months after transmission.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84862495071&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0038630

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0038630

M3 - Article

VL - 7

JO - PloS ONE

JF - PloS ONE

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 6

M1 - e38630

ER -