Immunostimulatory CpG oligodeoxynucleotides stimulate expression of IL-1 beta and interferon-like cytokines in rainbow trout macrophages via a chloroquine-sensitive mechanism

J B Jorgensen, Jun Zou, A Johansen, Christopher John Secombes

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83 Citations (Scopus)


Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) containing unmethylated CpG motifs are known to stimulate immune responses and are potent adjuvant's in higher vertebrates, but so far the effects in fish are poorly described. We here report that CpG ODNs induce IL-1 beta expression and production of interferon-like cytokines in rainbow trout head-kidney macrophages, whereas ODNs with an inverted motif (GpC) have a much less stimulatory effect. We further demonstrate that endosomal maturation is essential for CpG signalling, as chloroquine, a compound known to block endosomal acidification, inhibits cytokine expression in the macrophages. (C) 2001 Academic Press.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673-682
Number of pages10
JournalFish & Shellfish Immunology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2001


  • rainbow trout
  • CpG motif
  • cytokine
  • interferon
  • IL-1 beta
  • macrophages
  • bacterial-DNA
  • immune-response
  • innate immunity
  • B-cell
  • motifs
  • adjuvants
  • oligonecleotides
  • activation
  • vaccines
  • antigen

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