Asthma is a common and serious illness with suboptimal outcomes of care. Epidemiological studies show certain comorbidities occurring more frequently than expected with asthma, with some being associated with poor control and a differential response to therapy options. This review summarizes the evidence of clinically important comorbidities, focusing on the best-explored conditions, including rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, anxiety and depression, obesity, gastroesophageal reflux, smoking and dysfunctional breathing. The evidence of epidemiological and pathophysiological associations for these comorbidities is explored, and the practical therapeutic implications are considered. Comorbidities are important for clinicians treating asthma as they may be markers of patients at risk of poor outcomes, they may point to specific effective treatment options and they are important to researchers as possible confounding factors in clinical trials.
- dysfunctional breathing
- gastroesophageal reflux