Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome

Gerald E. Lobley, Grietje Holtrop, David M. Bremner, A. Graham Calder, Eric Milne, Alexandra M. Johnstone

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26 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M) diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS) or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS), each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories) WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001), as did EGP (-11%, p = 0.006). Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001) and RS (p < 0.05) diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%-83%, p < 0.005). Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat) improved IS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2144-2172
Number of pages29
JournalNutrients
Volume5
Issue number6
Early online date10 Jun 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

Keywords

  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Minimal models
  • Non-starch polysaccharides
  • Resistant starch
  • Stable isotope kinetics
  • Weight loss

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