Impaired Motion Processing in Schizophrenia and the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome: Etiological and Clinical Implications

Antigona Martinez (Corresponding Author), Pablo A. Gaspar, Steven A. Hillyard, Soren K. Andersen, Javier Lopez-Calderon, Cheryl M. Corcoran, Daniel C. Javitt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective:
The ability to perceive the motion of biological objects, such as faces, is a critical component of daily function and correlates with the ability to successfully navigate social situations (social cognition). Deficits in motion perception in schizophrenia were first demonstrated about 20 years ago but remain understudied, especially in the early, potentially prodromal, stages of the illness. The authors examined the neural bases of visual sensory processing impairments, including motion, in patients with schizophrenia (N=63) and attenuated psychosis (clinical high risk) (N=32) compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (N=67).

Method:
Electrophysiological recordings during stimulus and motion processing were analyzed using oscillatory (time frequency) approaches that differentiated motion-onset-evoked activity from stimulus-onset sensory-evoked responses. These were compared with functional MRI (fMRI) measures of motion processing.

Results:
Significant deficits in motion processing were observed across the two patient groups, and these deficits predicted impairments in both face-emotion recognition and cognitive function. In contrast to motion processing, sensory-evoked stimulus-onset responses were intact in patients with attenuated psychosis, and, further, the relative deficit in motion-onset responses compared with stimulus-onset responses predicted transition to schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, motion detection deficits mapped to impaired activation in motion-sensitive visual cortex during fMRI. Additional visual impairments in patients with schizophrenia, not present in patients with attenuated psychosis, implicated other visual regions, including the middle occipital gyrus and pulvinar thalamic nucleus.

Conclusions:
The study findings emphasize the importance of sensory-level visual dysfunction in the etiology of schizophrenia and in the personal experience of individuals with the disorder and demonstrate that motion-processing deficits may predate illness onset and contribute to impaired function even in patients with attenuated psychosis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1243-1254
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Psychiatry
Volume175
Issue number12
Early online date3 Oct 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia
Aptitude
Cognition
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Pulvinar
Prodromal Symptoms
Motion Perception
Occipital Lobe
Thalamic Nuclei
Vision Disorders
Visual Cortex
Prednisolone
Healthy Volunteers
Emotions

Keywords

  • schizophrenia
  • neurophysiology
  • electroencephalography
  • visual processing
  • prodrome

Cite this

Impaired Motion Processing in Schizophrenia and the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome : Etiological and Clinical Implications. / Martinez, Antigona (Corresponding Author); Gaspar, Pablo A.; Hillyard, Steven A.; Andersen, Soren K.; Lopez-Calderon, Javier; Corcoran, Cheryl M.; Javitt, Daniel C.

In: American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 175, No. 12, 01.12.2018, p. 1243-1254.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Martinez, Antigona ; Gaspar, Pablo A. ; Hillyard, Steven A. ; Andersen, Soren K. ; Lopez-Calderon, Javier ; Corcoran, Cheryl M. ; Javitt, Daniel C. / Impaired Motion Processing in Schizophrenia and the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome : Etiological and Clinical Implications. In: American Journal of Psychiatry. 2018 ; Vol. 175, No. 12. pp. 1243-1254.
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AU - Hillyard, Steven A.

AU - Andersen, Soren K.

AU - Lopez-Calderon, Javier

AU - Corcoran, Cheryl M.

AU - Javitt, Daniel C.

N1 - The authors thank Gail Silipo, M.A. for assistance in subject recruitment, Raj Sangoi (RT)(R)(MR) and Caxia Hu, M.S., for assistance in MRI scanning and Isabel and Herb Stusser for their generous support. This research was supported by NIMH grant MH084031 (MJH) DA03383 (DCJ).

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N2 - Objective:The ability to perceive the motion of biological objects, such as faces, is a critical component of daily function and correlates with the ability to successfully navigate social situations (social cognition). Deficits in motion perception in schizophrenia were first demonstrated about 20 years ago but remain understudied, especially in the early, potentially prodromal, stages of the illness. The authors examined the neural bases of visual sensory processing impairments, including motion, in patients with schizophrenia (N=63) and attenuated psychosis (clinical high risk) (N=32) compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (N=67).Method:Electrophysiological recordings during stimulus and motion processing were analyzed using oscillatory (time frequency) approaches that differentiated motion-onset-evoked activity from stimulus-onset sensory-evoked responses. These were compared with functional MRI (fMRI) measures of motion processing.Results:Significant deficits in motion processing were observed across the two patient groups, and these deficits predicted impairments in both face-emotion recognition and cognitive function. In contrast to motion processing, sensory-evoked stimulus-onset responses were intact in patients with attenuated psychosis, and, further, the relative deficit in motion-onset responses compared with stimulus-onset responses predicted transition to schizophrenia. In patients with schizophrenia, motion detection deficits mapped to impaired activation in motion-sensitive visual cortex during fMRI. Additional visual impairments in patients with schizophrenia, not present in patients with attenuated psychosis, implicated other visual regions, including the middle occipital gyrus and pulvinar thalamic nucleus.Conclusions:The study findings emphasize the importance of sensory-level visual dysfunction in the etiology of schizophrenia and in the personal experience of individuals with the disorder and demonstrate that motion-processing deficits may predate illness onset and contribute to impaired function even in patients with attenuated psychosis.

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KW - neurophysiology

KW - electroencephalography

KW - visual processing

KW - prodrome

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JO - American Journal of Psychiatry

JF - American Journal of Psychiatry

SN - 0002-953X

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