Individual monitoring of immune response in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar following experimental infection with piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), agent of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) 

Milena Monte, Katy Urquhart, Øystein Evensen, Christopher J. Secombes, Bertrand Collet* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Piscine myocarditis virus (PCMV) is a double-stranded RNA virus structurally similar to the Totiviridae family. PCMV is the causative agent of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS), a severe cardiac disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A recent study characterized the host immune response in infected salmon through a transcriptome immune profiling, which confirmed a high regulation of immune and anti-viral genes throughout infection with PCMV. Previously we developed a novel model based on repeated non-lethal blood sampling, enabling the individual monitoring of salmonids during an infection. In the present work, we used this model to describe the host immune response in the blood cells of Atlantic salmon after intramuscular infection with PCMV-containing tissue homogenate over a 77-day period. At the final stage heart samples were also collected to verify the PCMV load, the pathological impact of infection and to compare the transcript profiles to blood. The expression level of a range of key immune genes was determined in the blood and heart samples by real-time PCR. Results indicated selected immune genes (mx, cd8α and γip) were up-regulated in the heart tissue of infected animals at the terminal time point, in comparison to the non-infected fish. When analyzing the blood samples over the course of infection, a significant n up-regulation of mx gene was also observed. The time and number of peaks in the kinetics of expression was different between individuals. The PCMV load and CMS pathology was verified by real-time PCR and histopathology, respectively. No pathogen and no pathology could be detected during the course of the experiment except at the terminal stage (viral load by qPCR and pathology by histology). This study emphasizes the value of non-lethal monitoring for evaluating the health status of fish at early stages of infection and in the absence of clinical signs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103406
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Volume99
Early online date31 May 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019

Fingerprint

Salmo salar
Immunologic Monitoring
Myocarditis
Cardiomyopathies
Viruses
Infection
Pathology
Totiviridae
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Fishes
Genes
Salmonidae
Double-Stranded RNA
Viral Genes
Salmon
RNA Viruses
Gene Expression Profiling
Viral Load
Health Status
Heart Diseases

Keywords

  • 3Rs
  • Atlantic salmon
  • Immune response
  • Interferon
  • mx
  • Non-lethal sampling
  • PMCV
  • CHALLENGE
  • L.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Developmental Biology

Cite this

Individual monitoring of immune response in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar following experimental infection with piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), agent of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) . / Monte, Milena; Urquhart, Katy; Evensen, Øystein; Secombes, Christopher J.; Collet, Bertrand (Corresponding Author).

In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, Vol. 99, 103406, 10.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Individual monitoring of immune response in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar following experimental infection with piscine myocarditis virus (PMCV), agent of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) ",
abstract = "Piscine myocarditis virus (PCMV) is a double-stranded RNA virus structurally similar to the Totiviridae family. PCMV is the causative agent of cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS), a severe cardiac disease that affects farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A recent study characterized the host immune response in infected salmon through a transcriptome immune profiling, which confirmed a high regulation of immune and anti-viral genes throughout infection with PCMV. Previously we developed a novel model based on repeated non-lethal blood sampling, enabling the individual monitoring of salmonids during an infection. In the present work, we used this model to describe the host immune response in the blood cells of Atlantic salmon after intramuscular infection with PCMV-containing tissue homogenate over a 77-day period. At the final stage heart samples were also collected to verify the PCMV load, the pathological impact of infection and to compare the transcript profiles to blood. The expression level of a range of key immune genes was determined in the blood and heart samples by real-time PCR. Results indicated selected immune genes (mx, cd8α and γip) were up-regulated in the heart tissue of infected animals at the terminal time point, in comparison to the non-infected fish. When analyzing the blood samples over the course of infection, a significant n up-regulation of mx gene was also observed. The time and number of peaks in the kinetics of expression was different between individuals. The PCMV load and CMS pathology was verified by real-time PCR and histopathology, respectively. No pathogen and no pathology could be detected during the course of the experiment except at the terminal stage (viral load by qPCR and pathology by histology). This study emphasizes the value of non-lethal monitoring for evaluating the health status of fish at early stages of infection and in the absence of clinical signs.",
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note = "This work was funded by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs, grant G1100675). {\O}ystein Evensen received funding from Research Council grant no. 267807, and Norwegian Seafood Research Fund grant no. 901179. The authors are grateful to the Marine Scotland aquarium staff (Ben Williamson, Louise Feehan and Mark Paterson) for help in the experimental work. Hendrix-Genetix (formerly Landcatch Natural Selection) is also acknowledged for providing PIT tagged fish for the purpose of this project.",
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AU - Collet, Bertrand

N1 - This work was funded by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs, grant G1100675). Øystein Evensen received funding from Research Council grant no. 267807, and Norwegian Seafood Research Fund grant no. 901179. The authors are grateful to the Marine Scotland aquarium staff (Ben Williamson, Louise Feehan and Mark Paterson) for help in the experimental work. Hendrix-Genetix (formerly Landcatch Natural Selection) is also acknowledged for providing PIT tagged fish for the purpose of this project.

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