International, multidisciplinary Delphi consensus recommendations on non-pharmacological interventions for fibromyalgia

Burak Kundakci* (Corresponding Author), Michelle Hall, Fabiola Atzeni, Jaime C. Branco, Dan Buskila, Daniel Clauw, Leslie J. Crofford, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, University Nottingham, Robert D. Gerwin, Eva Kosek, Gary Macfarlane, Caroline Neal, Nathan J. Rudin, Sarah Ryan, José A. P. da Silva, Cardiff University, Dennis C. Turk, Daniel Whibley, Michael DohertyUniversity Nottingham, University Nottingham

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Although non-pharmacological interventions are recommended as first-line
treatment for fibromyalgia, there are currently no evidence-based
recommendations as to which intervention(s) to offer as core and adjunctive
treatments for each common symptom in fibromyalgia.
This Delphi exercise provided an evidence-based consensus of international
expert practitioners and researchers on core and adjunctive non-pharmacological treatments for pain, fatigue, sleep, and depression in
fibromyalgia. Aerobic exercise, education, sleep hygiene and cognitive
behavioural therapy were recommended as core treatments for all symptoms.
This consensus will help clinicians to personalise the treatment plan for people
with fibromyalgia according to their symptom(s).
Original languageEnglish
Article number152101
Number of pages5
JournalSeminars in arthritis and rheumatism
Early online date29 Sep 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2022


  • fibromyalgia
  • Delphi consensus
  • non-pharmacological intervention


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