In this paper, we summarize how internationalization research has evolved over time, where it stands today, and how it might evolve going forward. Specifically, we examine internationalization research from earlier times to the present day. We contrast the incremental internationalization characteristic of older multinational enterprises with the early, rapid internationalization of born global firms. The paper summarizes the evolution of research on early internationalization and born global firms, and provides evidence to suggest why this area now has attained legitimacy in scholarly research. We then examine important theoretical issues in born global research and suggest avenues for future research.
- Born global firms
- Early internationalization
- Incremental internationalization