Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Smoking in Low-Income Groups: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Behavior Change Techniques and Delivery/Context

Eleanor R. Bull (Corresponding Author), Nicola McCleary, Xinru Li, Stephan Dombrowski, Elise Dusseldorp, Marie Johnston

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Abstract

Purpose
Healthy eating, physical activity and smoking interventions for low-income groups may have small, positive effects. Identifying effective intervention components could guide intervention development. This study investigated which content and delivery components of interventions were associated with increased healthy behavior in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for low-income adults.
Method
Data from a review showing intervention effects in 35 RCTs containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants were analysed to assess associations with behavior change techniques (BCTs) and delivery/context components from the template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist. The associations of 46 BCTs and 14 delivery/context components with behavior change (measures of healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation) were examined using random effects subgroup meta-analyses. Synergistic effects of components were examined using classification and regression trees (meta-CART) analyses based on both fixed and random effects assumptions.

ResultsFor healthy eating, self-monitoring, delivery through personal contact, and targeting multiple behaviors were associated with increased effectiveness. Providing feedback, information about emotional consequences, or using prompts and cues were associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective without feedback, or with self-monitoring excluding feedback. More effective physical activity interventions included behavioral practice/rehearsal or instruction, focussed solely on physical activity or took place in home/community settings. Information about antecedents was associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective in home/community settings with instruction. No associations were identified for smoking.

ConclusionThis study identified BCTs and delivery/context components, individually and synergistically, linked to increased and reduced effectiveness of healthy eating and physical activity interventions. The identified components should be subject to further experimental study to help inform the development effective behavior change interventions for low-income groups to reduce health inequalities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)605-616
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Volume25
Issue number6
Early online date12 Jul 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

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Meta-Analysis
Smoking
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking Cessation
Healthy Diet
Checklist
Cues
Eating
Health

Keywords

  • Behavior change techniques
  • Healthy eating
  • Physical activity
  • Smoking cessation
  • Low-income populations
  • Meta-analysis

Cite this

Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Smoking in Low-Income Groups : a Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Behavior Change Techniques and Delivery/Context. / Bull, Eleanor R. (Corresponding Author); McCleary, Nicola; Li, Xinru; Dombrowski, Stephan; Dusseldorp, Elise; Johnston, Marie.

In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 6, 12.2018, p. 605-616.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "PurposeHealthy eating, physical activity and smoking interventions for low-income groups may have small, positive effects. Identifying effective intervention components could guide intervention development. This study investigated which content and delivery components of interventions were associated with increased healthy behavior in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for low-income adults.MethodData from a review showing intervention effects in 35 RCTs containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants were analysed to assess associations with behavior change techniques (BCTs) and delivery/context components from the template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist. The associations of 46 BCTs and 14 delivery/context components with behavior change (measures of healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation) were examined using random effects subgroup meta-analyses. Synergistic effects of components were examined using classification and regression trees (meta-CART) analyses based on both fixed and random effects assumptions.ResultsFor healthy eating, self-monitoring, delivery through personal contact, and targeting multiple behaviors were associated with increased effectiveness. Providing feedback, information about emotional consequences, or using prompts and cues were associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective without feedback, or with self-monitoring excluding feedback. More effective physical activity interventions included behavioral practice/rehearsal or instruction, focussed solely on physical activity or took place in home/community settings. Information about antecedents was associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective in home/community settings with instruction. No associations were identified for smoking.ConclusionThis study identified BCTs and delivery/context components, individually and synergistically, linked to increased and reduced effectiveness of healthy eating and physical activity interventions. The identified components should be subject to further experimental study to help inform the development effective behavior change interventions for low-income groups to reduce health inequalities.",
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note = "We gratefully acknowledge the help of Dr Fabiana Lorencatto, City University, University of London, for help in behavior change technique coding in this study and the advice of Professor Susan Michie, University College London.",
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AU - Li, Xinru

AU - Dombrowski, Stephan

AU - Dusseldorp, Elise

AU - Johnston, Marie

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N2 - PurposeHealthy eating, physical activity and smoking interventions for low-income groups may have small, positive effects. Identifying effective intervention components could guide intervention development. This study investigated which content and delivery components of interventions were associated with increased healthy behavior in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for low-income adults.MethodData from a review showing intervention effects in 35 RCTs containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants were analysed to assess associations with behavior change techniques (BCTs) and delivery/context components from the template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist. The associations of 46 BCTs and 14 delivery/context components with behavior change (measures of healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation) were examined using random effects subgroup meta-analyses. Synergistic effects of components were examined using classification and regression trees (meta-CART) analyses based on both fixed and random effects assumptions.ResultsFor healthy eating, self-monitoring, delivery through personal contact, and targeting multiple behaviors were associated with increased effectiveness. Providing feedback, information about emotional consequences, or using prompts and cues were associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective without feedback, or with self-monitoring excluding feedback. More effective physical activity interventions included behavioral practice/rehearsal or instruction, focussed solely on physical activity or took place in home/community settings. Information about antecedents was associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective in home/community settings with instruction. No associations were identified for smoking.ConclusionThis study identified BCTs and delivery/context components, individually and synergistically, linked to increased and reduced effectiveness of healthy eating and physical activity interventions. The identified components should be subject to further experimental study to help inform the development effective behavior change interventions for low-income groups to reduce health inequalities.

AB - PurposeHealthy eating, physical activity and smoking interventions for low-income groups may have small, positive effects. Identifying effective intervention components could guide intervention development. This study investigated which content and delivery components of interventions were associated with increased healthy behavior in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for low-income adults.MethodData from a review showing intervention effects in 35 RCTs containing 45 interventions with 17,000 participants were analysed to assess associations with behavior change techniques (BCTs) and delivery/context components from the template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist. The associations of 46 BCTs and 14 delivery/context components with behavior change (measures of healthy eating, physical activity and smoking cessation) were examined using random effects subgroup meta-analyses. Synergistic effects of components were examined using classification and regression trees (meta-CART) analyses based on both fixed and random effects assumptions.ResultsFor healthy eating, self-monitoring, delivery through personal contact, and targeting multiple behaviors were associated with increased effectiveness. Providing feedback, information about emotional consequences, or using prompts and cues were associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective without feedback, or with self-monitoring excluding feedback. More effective physical activity interventions included behavioral practice/rehearsal or instruction, focussed solely on physical activity or took place in home/community settings. Information about antecedents was associated with reduced effectiveness. In synergistic analyses, interventions were most effective in home/community settings with instruction. No associations were identified for smoking.ConclusionThis study identified BCTs and delivery/context components, individually and synergistically, linked to increased and reduced effectiveness of healthy eating and physical activity interventions. The identified components should be subject to further experimental study to help inform the development effective behavior change interventions for low-income groups to reduce health inequalities.

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KW - Low-income populations

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JO - International Journal of Behavioral Medicine

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SN - 1070-5503

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