Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease

An-Ming Yang, Tatsuo Inamine, Katrin Hochrath, Peng Chen, Lirui Wang, Cristina Llorente, Sena Bluemel, Phillipp Hartmann, Jun Xu, Yukinori Koyama, Tatiana Kisseleva, Manolito G. Torralba, Kelvin Moncera, Karen Beeri, Chien-Sheng Chen, Kim Freese, Claus Hellerbrand, Serene M.L. Lee, Hal M. Hoffman, Wajahat Z. MehalGuadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Ece A. Mutlu, Ali Keshavarzian, Gordon D. Brown, Samuel B Ho, Ramon Bataller, Peter Stärkel, Derrick E. Fouts, Bernd Schnabl

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Abstract

Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin–like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow–derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non–alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2829-2841
Number of pages13
JournalThe Journal of Clinical Investigation
Volume127
Issue number7
Early online date22 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017

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    Yang, A-M., Inamine, T., Hochrath, K., Chen, P., Wang, L., Llorente, C., Bluemel, S., Hartmann, P., Xu, J., Koyama, Y., Kisseleva, T., Torralba, M. G., Moncera, K., Beeri, K., Chen, C-S., Freese, K., Hellerbrand, C., Lee, S. M. L., Hoffman, H. M., ... Schnabl, B. (2017). Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 127(7), 2829-2841. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI90562