The turbulent flow, with the Reynolds number of 5.9 × 105, in the strongly 3-D skew blade passage of a true Francis hydro turbine was simulated by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to investigate the spatial and temporal distributions of the fully developed turbulence in the passage with strongly 3-D complex geometry. The simulations show that the strong three-dimensionality of the passage has a great amplification effect on the turbulence in the passage, and the distributions of the turbulence are diversely nonuniform, for instance, the rise of turbulent kinetic energy in the lower 1/3 region of the passage is more than 45%, whereas its rise in the upper 1/3 region is less than 1%. With the LES approach, the details of the flow structures at the near-wall surfaces of the blades could be obtained. Several turbulent spots were captured.
Zhang, L. X., Wang, W. Q., & Guo, Y. (2007). Intrinsic features of turbulent flow in strongly 3-D skew blade passage of a francis turbine. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Series B, 19(1), 92-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(07)60033-X