Non-ribosomal peptides (NRPs) are biosynthesized on non-ribosomal peptides synthetase (NRPS) complexes, of which a C-terminal releasing domain commonly offloads the products. Interestingly, a dedicated releasing domain is absent in surugamides (SGM) NRPS, which directs the biosynthesis of cyclic octapeptides, SGM-A to -E, and the linear decapeptide, SGM-F. Here, we confirmed that surE is essential for the production of SGMs via genetic experiments. Biochemical characterization demonstrated that the recombinant enzyme, SurE, can generate the main products SGM-A and -F from the corresponding SNAC substrates, indicating that SurE is a standalone thioesterase-like enzyme. SurE also displays considerable substrate plasticity with expanded ring or different amino acid compositions to produce different cyclopeptides, highlighting the potential of chemoenzymatic applications. Site-directed mutagenesis allowed identification of the key residues of SurE. Finally, bioinformatics analysis suggested that SurE homologs are widely distributed in bacteria, suggesting a general mechanism of NRP release in Nature.
- penicillin binding protein
- non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis
- cyclase and hydrolase