Background Following a well-balanced diet ensures that a person gets all the essential elements for health sustenance. However, in the United Kingdom an increasing proportion of people are transiting to become vegans who exclude animal-based products in their diets. Consequently, people may have a deficit of essential elements such as iodine which is not present in most plant-based meals, additionally iodide fortified table salt is not commonly used in the UK. Without iodine people consuming a vegan diet risk developing iodine deficiency and diseases like goiter. Methods The objective of this study is to determine the difference in iodine content and iodine speciation between plant-based and dairy products. More than 100 market samples of plant-based and dairy milk products were collected in Scotland, UK. Results Iodine concentrations in dairy milk is ten times higher compared to plant-based milks. Similar differences were also apparent for butter, yogurt and cheese. A total of 20% of plant-based milk products were fortified with iodine, however these products had lower iodine concentrations compare to the equivalent dairy products. In this study we calculated that people with average diet have an iodine intake of 226 +/- 103μg day-1 from dairy products which satisfies the WHO recommended intake of adults and 90% of the recommend intake for pregnant and breast-feeding women. A diet from substituted dairy products gives only 21.8µg day-1 for the respective WHO guideline intake values, which accounts only 15% of the iodine intake for adults and 9% for pregnant and lactating women. Iodine fortified diet could increase the iodine intake to 55% or 33% of the WHO recommended daily intake respectively. Conclusion Plant-based dairy consumers are encouraged to use iodine fortified dairy products or use of iodized salt in the UK for home cooking, otherwise there are at risk to get iodine deficient.
|Journal||Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology|
|Early online date||19 May 2023|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 19 May 2023|
- plant-based milk
- dairy milk
- fortified food