Evidence acquisition: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for all relevant publications, without time or language limitations. The primary harm outcome was overall mortality and the primary benefit outcome was renal preservation rate. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay and complication rate. Single-arm studies were included as there were few comparative studies. Only studies with more than 50 patients were included. Data were narratively synthesised in light of methodological and clinical heterogeneity. The risk of bias of each included study was assessed.
Evidence synthesis: Seven nonrandomised comparative and four single-arm studies were selected for data extraction. Seven hundred and eighty-seven patients were included from the comparative studies with 535 patients in the NOM group and 252 in the open surgical exploration group. A further 825 patients were included from single-arm studies. Results from comparative studies: overall mortality: NOM (0–3%), open surgical exploration (0–29%); renal preservation rate: NOM (84–100%), open surgical exploration (0–82%); complication rate: NOM (5–32%), open surgical exploration (10–76%). Overall mortality and renal preservation rate were significantly better in the NOM group whereas there was no statistical difference with regard to complication rate. Length of hospital stay was found be significantly reduced in the NOM group. Patients in the open surgical exploration group were more likely to have Grade V injuries, have a lower systolic blood pressure, and higher injury severity score on admission.
Conclusions: No randomised controlled trials were identified and significant heterogeneity existed with regard to outcome reporting. However, NOM appeared to be safe and effective in a stable patient with a higher renal preservation rate, a shorter length of stay, and a comparable complication rate to open surgical exploration. Overall mortality was higher in the open surgical exploration group, though this was likely due to selection bias.
Patient summary: The data of this systematic review suggest nonoperative management continues to be favoured to surgical exploration in the management of high-grade renal trauma whenever possible. However, comparisons between both interventions are difficult as patients who have surgery are often more seriously injured than those managed nonoperatively, and existing studies do not report on outcomes consistently.
- High-grade renal injury
- Nonoperative management
- Surgical exploration
- URINARY EXTRAVASATION
- RADICAL NEPHRECTOMY
- CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT