Is salt intake reduction a universal intervention for both normotensive and hypertensive people: a case from Iran STEPS survey 2016

Ali Gholami, Shahabeddin Rezaei, Leila Moosavi Jahromi, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Ali Ghanbari, Shirin Djalalinia, Nazila Rezaei, Shohreh Naderimagham, Mitra Modirian, Negar Mahmoudi, Zohreh Mahmoudi, Mohammad Javad Hajipour, Ahmad kousha, Siamak Mirab Samiee, Farshad Farzadfar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: There is a direct association between salt intake and blood pressure (BP), one of the main risk factors for CVDs. However, yet there has been a debate that how strong is this association in people with and without hypertension. This study was conducted to evaluate the magnitude of the association between salt intake and BP in hypertensive and normotensive population among a nationally representative population. Methods: The study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of 18,635 Iranian adults aged 25 years and older who participated in the STEPS survey 2016 and provided urine sample. Salt intake was estimated through spot urine sample and Tanaka equation. Multiple linear regression model in survey data analysis was used to assess the independent effect of salt intake on BP. Results: After adjusting for covariates, there was a significant association between salt intake and SBP in hypertensive (p < 0.001) and normotensive people (p < 0.001). In hypertensive people, with 1 g of increase in salt intake, the SBP and DBP increased 0.37 mmHg and 0.07 mmHg, respectively. Whereas in normotensive people, with 1 g of increase in salt intake, the SBP and DBP increased 0.26 mmHg and 0.05 mmHg, respectively. Moreover, there was a significant trend toward an increase of SBP across salt intake quartiles in both hypertensive (p < 0.001) and normotensive people (p = 0.002), though the slope was steeper in hypertensive than in normotensive people. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that salt intake significantly increased SBP in both hypertensive and normotensive people, though the magnitude of this increase was greater in hypertensive people as compared with normotensive people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3149-3161
Number of pages13
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume59
Early online date4 Dec 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Hypertensive
  • Iran
  • Normotensive
  • Salt

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