Is the present the key to the past?

A global characterization of modern sedimentary basins

Björn Nyberg, John A. Howell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The stratigraphic record is heavily biased because it is uniquely composed of sediments that were laid down in basins, whereas the majority of the present and historic land surface of the planet is composed of areas that are in net long-term erosion with no preservation potential. Global mapping and quantification of the distribution of currently active sedimentary basins suggest that only 16% of Earth’s terrestrial land surface is within sedimentary basins; the remainder of the land is in upland areas that will not be represented in the future rock record. Furthermore, 60% of the modern basin area has an arid climate, as opposed to 27% of the land surface. Tectonic classification of modern basins indicates that intracratonic and foreland basins cover the greatest area, whereas forearc, extensional, and strike-slip basins are the least represented by area. While this modern snapshot does not account for differences in subsidence rate or basin longevity, the mapping and quantification of modern basins highlight the incompleteness of the stratigraphic record, and the importance of caution when assuming “the present is the key to the past.”
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-646
Number of pages4
JournalGeology
Volume43
Issue number7
Early online date5 Jun 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2015

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sedimentary basin
basin
land surface
geological record
intracratonic basin
foreland basin
subsidence
planet
erosion
tectonics
climate
rock
sediment

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Is the present the key to the past? A global characterization of modern sedimentary basins. / Nyberg, Björn ; Howell, John A.

In: Geology, Vol. 43, No. 7, 07.2015, p. 643-646.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The stratigraphic record is heavily biased because it is uniquely composed of sediments that were laid down in basins, whereas the majority of the present and historic land surface of the planet is composed of areas that are in net long-term erosion with no preservation potential. Global mapping and quantification of the distribution of currently active sedimentary basins suggest that only 16{\%} of Earth’s terrestrial land surface is within sedimentary basins; the remainder of the land is in upland areas that will not be represented in the future rock record. Furthermore, 60{\%} of the modern basin area has an arid climate, as opposed to 27{\%} of the land surface. Tectonic classification of modern basins indicates that intracratonic and foreland basins cover the greatest area, whereas forearc, extensional, and strike-slip basins are the least represented by area. While this modern snapshot does not account for differences in subsidence rate or basin longevity, the mapping and quantification of modern basins highlight the incompleteness of the stratigraphic record, and the importance of caution when assuming “the present is the key to the past.”",
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