Isolation of the first piscine transforming growth factor β gene: Analysis reveals tissue specific expression and a potential regulatory sequence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Laura J. Hardie, Kerry J. Laing, Garry D. Daniels, Peter S. Grabowski, Charles Cunningham, Christopher J. Secombes*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

97 Citations (Scopus)


The nucleotide sequence of a rainbow trout transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) peptide is presented, which translates into a 382 amino acid precursor molecule containing a 20 amino acid leader and a mature peptide of 112 amino acids. The mature peptide has nine conserved cysteines and a conserved proline (position 36) and glycine (position 46), all characteristic of TGF-β superfamily molecules. Within the precursor region are three glycosylation sites, two in common with known TGF-βs, an integrin binding site (RGD) and the tetrabasic peptide cleavage site (RKKR). The full 3' untranslated region (UTR) consists of 542 nucleotides with a polyadenylation signal 16 nucleotides upstream of the poly(A) tail. The 5' UTR contains an open reading frame with the potential to encode an eleven amino acid peptide, which may have significance for regulation of TGF-β translation. A wide tissue distribution of TGF-β message was detected by RT-PCR; in blood leukocytes, kidney macrophages, brain, gill, and spleen tissue but not liver. A phylogenetic tree reveals the trout TGF-β sequence is most related to xenopus TGF-β5, with these sequences and that of chicken TGF-β4 grouping with mammalian TGF-β1s. The impact of the trout sequence on current theories of TGF-β isotype evolution is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-563
Number of pages9
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 1998



  • cDNA sequence
  • Cytokines
  • Evolution
  • Rainbow trout
  • Transforming growth factor β

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry
  • Hematology
  • Molecular Biology

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