It's not what you do it's the way that it's measured

quality assessment of minor ailment management in community pharmacies

Jackie Inch, Terry Porteous, Vivienne Maskrey, Annie Blyth, Jackie Burr, J. Cleland, David J. Wright, Richard Holland, Christine M. Bond, Margaret C. Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)
4 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background
Effective management of minor ailments in community pharmacies could reduce the burden on alternative high-cost services (general practices, Emergency Departments). Evidence is needed regarding the appropriateness of management of these conditions in community pharmacies.

Objective
To explore the appropriateness of minor ailment management in community pharmacies.

Setting
Prospective, observational study of simulated patient (SP) visits to community pharmacies in Grampian (Scotland) and East Anglia (England).

Method
Eighteen pharmacies (nine per centre) were recruited within a 25-mile radius of Aberdeen or Norwich. Consultations for four minor ailments were evaluated: back pain; vomiting/diarrhoea; sore throat; and eye discomfort. Each pharmacy received one SP visit per ailment (four visits/pharmacy; 72 visits total). Visits were audio-recorded and SPs completed a data collection form immediately after each visit.

Primary Outcome Measure
Each SP consultation was assessed for appropriateness against product licence, practice guidelines and study-specific consensus standards developed by a multi-disciplinary consensus panel.

Results
Evaluable data were available for 68/72 (94.4%) visits. Most (96%) visits resulted in the sale of a product; advice alone was the outcome of three visits. All product sales complied with the product licence, 52 (76%) visits complied with practice guidelines and seven visits achieved a ‘basic’ standard according to the consensus standard.

Conclusion
Appropriateness of care varied according to the standard used. Pharmacy-specific quality standards are needed which are realistic and relevant to the pharmacy context and which reflect legal and clinical guidelines to promote the safe and effective management of minor ailments in this setting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)253-262
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Volume25
Issue number4
Early online date28 Sep 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017

Fingerprint

Pharmacies
Licensure
Practice Guidelines
Sales
Referral and Consultation
Pharyngitis
Scotland
Back Pain
General Practice
England
Vomiting
Observational Studies
Hospital Emergency Service
Diarrhea
Guidelines
Costs and Cost Analysis
Costs

Keywords

  • community pharmacy services
  • quality indicators
  • health care
  • self care
  • non-prescription medicines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions(all)
  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

It's not what you do it's the way that it's measured : quality assessment of minor ailment management in community pharmacies. / Inch, Jackie; Porteous, Terry; Maskrey, Vivienne; Blyth, Annie ; Burr, Jackie ; Cleland, J.; Wright, David J.; Holland, Richard ; Bond, Christine M.; Watson, Margaret C.

In: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, Vol. 25, No. 4, 08.2017, p. 253-262.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Inch, Jackie ; Porteous, Terry ; Maskrey, Vivienne ; Blyth, Annie ; Burr, Jackie ; Cleland, J. ; Wright, David J. ; Holland, Richard ; Bond, Christine M. ; Watson, Margaret C. / It's not what you do it's the way that it's measured : quality assessment of minor ailment management in community pharmacies. In: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2017 ; Vol. 25, No. 4. pp. 253-262.
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abstract = "BackgroundEffective management of minor ailments in community pharmacies could reduce the burden on alternative high-cost services (general practices, Emergency Departments). Evidence is needed regarding the appropriateness of management of these conditions in community pharmacies.ObjectiveTo explore the appropriateness of minor ailment management in community pharmacies.SettingProspective, observational study of simulated patient (SP) visits to community pharmacies in Grampian (Scotland) and East Anglia (England).MethodEighteen pharmacies (nine per centre) were recruited within a 25-mile radius of Aberdeen or Norwich. Consultations for four minor ailments were evaluated: back pain; vomiting/diarrhoea; sore throat; and eye discomfort. Each pharmacy received one SP visit per ailment (four visits/pharmacy; 72 visits total). Visits were audio-recorded and SPs completed a data collection form immediately after each visit.Primary Outcome MeasureEach SP consultation was assessed for appropriateness against product licence, practice guidelines and study-specific consensus standards developed by a multi-disciplinary consensus panel.ResultsEvaluable data were available for 68/72 (94.4{\%}) visits. Most (96{\%}) visits resulted in the sale of a product; advice alone was the outcome of three visits. All product sales complied with the product licence, 52 (76{\%}) visits complied with practice guidelines and seven visits achieved a ‘basic’ standard according to the consensus standard.ConclusionAppropriateness of care varied according to the standard used. Pharmacy-specific quality standards are needed which are realistic and relevant to the pharmacy context and which reflect legal and clinical guidelines to promote the safe and effective management of minor ailments in this setting.",
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AU - Holland, Richard

AU - Bond, Christine M.

AU - Watson, Margaret C.

N1 - Funding This independent research was supported by the Pharmacy Practice Research Trust (PPRT) which merged with the Pharmaceutical Trust for Educational and Charitable Objects in December 2012 to form Pharmacy Research UK (PRUK). The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the PPRT or of PRUK. Acknowledgments We thank the patients, health professionals and other NHS staff who contributed to this programme of research; members of the consensus panels and the advisory group; members of the PPRT Steering Group and to PRUK for funding this research.

PY - 2017/8

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N2 - BackgroundEffective management of minor ailments in community pharmacies could reduce the burden on alternative high-cost services (general practices, Emergency Departments). Evidence is needed regarding the appropriateness of management of these conditions in community pharmacies.ObjectiveTo explore the appropriateness of minor ailment management in community pharmacies.SettingProspective, observational study of simulated patient (SP) visits to community pharmacies in Grampian (Scotland) and East Anglia (England).MethodEighteen pharmacies (nine per centre) were recruited within a 25-mile radius of Aberdeen or Norwich. Consultations for four minor ailments were evaluated: back pain; vomiting/diarrhoea; sore throat; and eye discomfort. Each pharmacy received one SP visit per ailment (four visits/pharmacy; 72 visits total). Visits were audio-recorded and SPs completed a data collection form immediately after each visit.Primary Outcome MeasureEach SP consultation was assessed for appropriateness against product licence, practice guidelines and study-specific consensus standards developed by a multi-disciplinary consensus panel.ResultsEvaluable data were available for 68/72 (94.4%) visits. Most (96%) visits resulted in the sale of a product; advice alone was the outcome of three visits. All product sales complied with the product licence, 52 (76%) visits complied with practice guidelines and seven visits achieved a ‘basic’ standard according to the consensus standard.ConclusionAppropriateness of care varied according to the standard used. Pharmacy-specific quality standards are needed which are realistic and relevant to the pharmacy context and which reflect legal and clinical guidelines to promote the safe and effective management of minor ailments in this setting.

AB - BackgroundEffective management of minor ailments in community pharmacies could reduce the burden on alternative high-cost services (general practices, Emergency Departments). Evidence is needed regarding the appropriateness of management of these conditions in community pharmacies.ObjectiveTo explore the appropriateness of minor ailment management in community pharmacies.SettingProspective, observational study of simulated patient (SP) visits to community pharmacies in Grampian (Scotland) and East Anglia (England).MethodEighteen pharmacies (nine per centre) were recruited within a 25-mile radius of Aberdeen or Norwich. Consultations for four minor ailments were evaluated: back pain; vomiting/diarrhoea; sore throat; and eye discomfort. Each pharmacy received one SP visit per ailment (four visits/pharmacy; 72 visits total). Visits were audio-recorded and SPs completed a data collection form immediately after each visit.Primary Outcome MeasureEach SP consultation was assessed for appropriateness against product licence, practice guidelines and study-specific consensus standards developed by a multi-disciplinary consensus panel.ResultsEvaluable data were available for 68/72 (94.4%) visits. Most (96%) visits resulted in the sale of a product; advice alone was the outcome of three visits. All product sales complied with the product licence, 52 (76%) visits complied with practice guidelines and seven visits achieved a ‘basic’ standard according to the consensus standard.ConclusionAppropriateness of care varied according to the standard used. Pharmacy-specific quality standards are needed which are realistic and relevant to the pharmacy context and which reflect legal and clinical guidelines to promote the safe and effective management of minor ailments in this setting.

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