Kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources to a fossil hydrothermal system

Joseph Armstrong* (Corresponding Author), John Parnell, Adrian J Boyce, Liam A Bullock

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The West Cumbria iron ore field exhibits kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources, as evidenced by sulphur isotope data. Barite accompanying haematite ore from 13 mines in an along-strike width of 5 km has δ34S(VCDT) isotopic compositions ranging from +7.9 ‰ to +23.6 ‰. The large variation is strongly controlled by NNW-SSE faulting, in which the heaviest compositions are to the north and lightest in the south. The heavy and light compositions are comparable with those of Carboniferous and Permian evaporites respectively, both of which occur in West Cumbria and are the assumed primary sources of the barite sulphur, though input from the oxidation of Carboniferous coal pyrite may have provided a minor component. The derivation of sulphur from stratigraphically distinct sources shows that faults isolated fluid flow in compartments on a local scale. Published data for barite from an adjacent fault block in a potential waste disposal site at Sellafield are further distinct, indicative of a primary pyrite source. These data emphasize that fluid sources can be highly compartmentalized in a faulted system and require supporting evidence to confirm if they can be correlated.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103207
JournalOre Geology Reviews
Volume116
Early online date1 Nov 2019
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Nov 2019

Fingerprint

Barium Sulfate
compartmentalization
barite
hydrothermal system
fossil
Sulfur
Fluids
fluid
Sulfur Isotopes
pyrite
Chemical analysis
sulfur
Faulting
Coal
Iron ores
sulfur isotope
iron ore
evaporite
Waste disposal
waste disposal

Keywords

  • Cumbria
  • Haematite
  • Barite
  • Sulphur-isotopes
  • compartmentalization
  • Compartmentalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economic Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geology

Cite this

Kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources to a fossil hydrothermal system. / Armstrong, Joseph (Corresponding Author); Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J; Bullock, Liam A.

In: Ore Geology Reviews, Vol. 116, 103207, 01.2020.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Armstrong, Joseph ; Parnell, John ; Boyce, Adrian J ; Bullock, Liam A. / Kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources to a fossil hydrothermal system. In: Ore Geology Reviews. 2020 ; Vol. 116.
@article{cc67483339fd4a01bde9c4b0f98a3fe3,
title = "Kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources to a fossil hydrothermal system",
abstract = "The West Cumbria iron ore field exhibits kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources, as evidenced by sulphur isotope data. Barite accompanying haematite ore from 13 mines in an along-strike width of 5 km has δ34S(VCDT) isotopic compositions ranging from +7.9 ‰ to +23.6 ‰. The large variation is strongly controlled by NNW-SSE faulting, in which the heaviest compositions are to the north and lightest in the south. The heavy and light compositions are comparable with those of Carboniferous and Permian evaporites respectively, both of which occur in West Cumbria and are the assumed primary sources of the barite sulphur, though input from the oxidation of Carboniferous coal pyrite may have provided a minor component. The derivation of sulphur from stratigraphically distinct sources shows that faults isolated fluid flow in compartments on a local scale. Published data for barite from an adjacent fault block in a potential waste disposal site at Sellafield are further distinct, indicative of a primary pyrite source. These data emphasize that fluid sources can be highly compartmentalized in a faulted system and require supporting evidence to confirm if they can be correlated.",
keywords = "Cumbria, Haematite, Barite, Sulphur-isotopes, compartmentalization, Compartmentalization",
author = "Joseph Armstrong and John Parnell and Boyce, {Adrian J} and Bullock, {Liam A}",
note = "Acknowledgements This project is in support of the TeaSe (Tellurium and Selenium Cycling) project of the NERC SoS (Security of Supply of Critical Elements) programme, under Grant NE/M010953/1. J. Johnston and J. Bowie provided skilled technical support. Samples were kindly contributed by the Kendal Museum, from Haile Moor (Sample KMG2012.1.62), Mowbray (KMG2012.1.74) and Parkside (KMG2004.1.919), and museum staff are thanked for help. Funding: This work was supported by NERC, UK [grant number NE/M010953/1].",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103207",
language = "English",
volume = "116",
journal = "Ore Geology Reviews",
issn = "0169-1368",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources to a fossil hydrothermal system

AU - Armstrong, Joseph

AU - Parnell, John

AU - Boyce, Adrian J

AU - Bullock, Liam A

N1 - Acknowledgements This project is in support of the TeaSe (Tellurium and Selenium Cycling) project of the NERC SoS (Security of Supply of Critical Elements) programme, under Grant NE/M010953/1. J. Johnston and J. Bowie provided skilled technical support. Samples were kindly contributed by the Kendal Museum, from Haile Moor (Sample KMG2012.1.62), Mowbray (KMG2012.1.74) and Parkside (KMG2004.1.919), and museum staff are thanked for help. Funding: This work was supported by NERC, UK [grant number NE/M010953/1].

PY - 2019/11/1

Y1 - 2019/11/1

N2 - The West Cumbria iron ore field exhibits kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources, as evidenced by sulphur isotope data. Barite accompanying haematite ore from 13 mines in an along-strike width of 5 km has δ34S(VCDT) isotopic compositions ranging from +7.9 ‰ to +23.6 ‰. The large variation is strongly controlled by NNW-SSE faulting, in which the heaviest compositions are to the north and lightest in the south. The heavy and light compositions are comparable with those of Carboniferous and Permian evaporites respectively, both of which occur in West Cumbria and are the assumed primary sources of the barite sulphur, though input from the oxidation of Carboniferous coal pyrite may have provided a minor component. The derivation of sulphur from stratigraphically distinct sources shows that faults isolated fluid flow in compartments on a local scale. Published data for barite from an adjacent fault block in a potential waste disposal site at Sellafield are further distinct, indicative of a primary pyrite source. These data emphasize that fluid sources can be highly compartmentalized in a faulted system and require supporting evidence to confirm if they can be correlated.

AB - The West Cumbria iron ore field exhibits kilometre-scale compartmentalization of fluid sources, as evidenced by sulphur isotope data. Barite accompanying haematite ore from 13 mines in an along-strike width of 5 km has δ34S(VCDT) isotopic compositions ranging from +7.9 ‰ to +23.6 ‰. The large variation is strongly controlled by NNW-SSE faulting, in which the heaviest compositions are to the north and lightest in the south. The heavy and light compositions are comparable with those of Carboniferous and Permian evaporites respectively, both of which occur in West Cumbria and are the assumed primary sources of the barite sulphur, though input from the oxidation of Carboniferous coal pyrite may have provided a minor component. The derivation of sulphur from stratigraphically distinct sources shows that faults isolated fluid flow in compartments on a local scale. Published data for barite from an adjacent fault block in a potential waste disposal site at Sellafield are further distinct, indicative of a primary pyrite source. These data emphasize that fluid sources can be highly compartmentalized in a faulted system and require supporting evidence to confirm if they can be correlated.

KW - Cumbria

KW - Haematite

KW - Barite

KW - Sulphur-isotopes

KW - compartmentalization

KW - Compartmentalization

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85075263922&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103207

DO - 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.103207

M3 - Article

VL - 116

JO - Ore Geology Reviews

JF - Ore Geology Reviews

SN - 0169-1368

M1 - 103207

ER -