'Ladder-doped’ polypyrrole: a possible electrode material for inclusion in electrochemical supercapacitors?

Malcolm D. Ingram, H. Staesche, K. S. Ryder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

69 Citations (Scopus)


Polypyrrole (pPy) electrodes containing polysulfonated aromatic anions are investigated by cyclic voltammetry as electrodes for use in electrochemical supercapacitors. These ‘ladder-doped’ materials are deposited as thick films (ca. 10 μm) having open structures that permit the rapid insertion/ejection (up to 300 mV s−1) of cations and anions from aqueous solution, and give an effective or ‘geometric’ capacitance of up to 0.40 F cm−2. The ‘dual mode’ doping behaviour seems essential for good capacitive response. These electrodes show a remarkable tendency to perform better at high cycling rates, an effect attributed to the way the structure ‘self-organises’ during the self-doping process. Good electrode response depends on protecting the open structure containing hydrophilic ion-conducting channels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-112
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Issue number1
Early online date23 Dec 2003
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2004


  • Supercapacitors
  • Polypyrrole
  • Dual mode behaviour
  • Hydrophilic channels


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