Lava–Sediment Interaction and Drainage-System Development In A Large Igneous Province: Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, U.S.A

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Abstract

Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been implicated in some of the largest environmental perturbations to have affected the Earth through geological time. Yet the impact of LIP development on drainage and ecosystem development in the immediate vicinity of these provinces are still poorly constrained to date. Based on a detailed, integrative facies scheme we characterize the interaction between volcanism and fluvial, lacustrine, and wetland environments in the Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP) LIP exposed in central Washington State, USA. The facies scheme proposed here comprises a detailed description and interpretation of siliciclastic, bioclastic (diatomite), volcaniclastic, and paleosol facies and subfacies intercalated with lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Facies and facies associations of individual interbeds are further correlated to reconstruct changes in sedimentary settings and topography of lava fields during deposition. Field observations and facies analysis help to explain the effects of flood-basalt volcanism on drainage-system development. We propose a generic model of lava–drainage interplay and distribution of sedimentary settings in flood-basalt provinces, which will contribute to our understanding of sedimentological, environmental, and volcanic processes in the CRBP. Hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic terrains requires detailed information on the distribution and development of sedimentary settings. This model will help to better predict the character and distribution of sedimentary bodies and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in volcanic terrains.
Original languageEnglish
Article number84
Pages (from-to)1041-1063
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Sedimentary Research
Volume84
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Fingerprint

large igneous province
flood basalt
river
volcanism
diatomite
facies analysis
hydrocarbon exploration
geological time
hydrocarbon reservoir
paleosol
lava
basalt
wetland
Miocene
perturbation
drainage system
province
topography
drainage
ecosystem

Keywords

  • Columbia River Flood Basalt Province
  • sedimentary interbed
  • drainage
  • lava flows
  • large igneous province

Cite this

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title = "Lava–Sediment Interaction and Drainage-System Development In A Large Igneous Province: Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, U.S.A",
abstract = "Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been implicated in some of the largest environmental perturbations to have affected the Earth through geological time. Yet the impact of LIP development on drainage and ecosystem development in the immediate vicinity of these provinces are still poorly constrained to date. Based on a detailed, integrative facies scheme we characterize the interaction between volcanism and fluvial, lacustrine, and wetland environments in the Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP) LIP exposed in central Washington State, USA. The facies scheme proposed here comprises a detailed description and interpretation of siliciclastic, bioclastic (diatomite), volcaniclastic, and paleosol facies and subfacies intercalated with lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Facies and facies associations of individual interbeds are further correlated to reconstruct changes in sedimentary settings and topography of lava fields during deposition. Field observations and facies analysis help to explain the effects of flood-basalt volcanism on drainage-system development. We propose a generic model of lava–drainage interplay and distribution of sedimentary settings in flood-basalt provinces, which will contribute to our understanding of sedimentological, environmental, and volcanic processes in the CRBP. Hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic terrains requires detailed information on the distribution and development of sedimentary settings. This model will help to better predict the character and distribution of sedimentary bodies and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in volcanic terrains.",
keywords = "Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, sedimentary interbed, drainage, lava flows, large igneous province",
author = "Alena Ebinghaus and Hartley, {Adrian J.} and Jolley, {David W.} and Hole, {Malcolm John} and John Millett",
year = "2014",
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T2 - Columbia River Flood Basalt Province, Washington State, U.S.A

AU - Ebinghaus, Alena

AU - Hartley, Adrian J.

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AU - Hole, Malcolm John

AU - Millett, John

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N2 - Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been implicated in some of the largest environmental perturbations to have affected the Earth through geological time. Yet the impact of LIP development on drainage and ecosystem development in the immediate vicinity of these provinces are still poorly constrained to date. Based on a detailed, integrative facies scheme we characterize the interaction between volcanism and fluvial, lacustrine, and wetland environments in the Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP) LIP exposed in central Washington State, USA. The facies scheme proposed here comprises a detailed description and interpretation of siliciclastic, bioclastic (diatomite), volcaniclastic, and paleosol facies and subfacies intercalated with lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Facies and facies associations of individual interbeds are further correlated to reconstruct changes in sedimentary settings and topography of lava fields during deposition. Field observations and facies analysis help to explain the effects of flood-basalt volcanism on drainage-system development. We propose a generic model of lava–drainage interplay and distribution of sedimentary settings in flood-basalt provinces, which will contribute to our understanding of sedimentological, environmental, and volcanic processes in the CRBP. Hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic terrains requires detailed information on the distribution and development of sedimentary settings. This model will help to better predict the character and distribution of sedimentary bodies and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in volcanic terrains.

AB - Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) have been implicated in some of the largest environmental perturbations to have affected the Earth through geological time. Yet the impact of LIP development on drainage and ecosystem development in the immediate vicinity of these provinces are still poorly constrained to date. Based on a detailed, integrative facies scheme we characterize the interaction between volcanism and fluvial, lacustrine, and wetland environments in the Miocene Columbia River Flood Basalt Province (CRBP) LIP exposed in central Washington State, USA. The facies scheme proposed here comprises a detailed description and interpretation of siliciclastic, bioclastic (diatomite), volcaniclastic, and paleosol facies and subfacies intercalated with lavas of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). Facies and facies associations of individual interbeds are further correlated to reconstruct changes in sedimentary settings and topography of lava fields during deposition. Field observations and facies analysis help to explain the effects of flood-basalt volcanism on drainage-system development. We propose a generic model of lava–drainage interplay and distribution of sedimentary settings in flood-basalt provinces, which will contribute to our understanding of sedimentological, environmental, and volcanic processes in the CRBP. Hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic terrains requires detailed information on the distribution and development of sedimentary settings. This model will help to better predict the character and distribution of sedimentary bodies and potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in volcanic terrains.

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