Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects

Lan Qie, Simon L. Lewis, Martin J. P. Sullivan, Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez, Georgia C. Pickavance, Terry Sunderland, Peter Ashton, Wannes Hubau, Kamariah Abu Salim, Shin-Ichiro Aiba, Lindsay F. Banin, Nicholas Berry, Francis Q. Brearley, David F. R. P. Burslem, Martin Dančák, Stuart J. Davies, Gabriella Fredriksson, Keith C. Hamer, Radim Hédl, Lip Khoon Kho & 32 others Kanehiro Kitayama, Haruni Krisnawati, Stanislav Lhota, Yadvinder Malhi, Colin Maycock, Faizah Metali, Edi Mirmanto, Laszlo Nagy, Reuben Nilus, Robert Ong, Colin A. Pendry, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, Richard B. Primack, Ervan Rutishauser, Ismayadi Samsoedin, Bernaulus Saragih, Plinio Sist, J. W. Ferry Slik, Rahayu Sukmaria Sukri, Martin Svátek, Sylvester Tan, Aiyen Tjoa, Mark van Nieuwstadt, Ronald R. E. Vernimmen, Ishak Yassir, Petra Susan Kidd, Muhammad Fitriadi, Nur Khalish Hafizhah Ideris, Rafizah Mat Serudin, Layla Syaznie Abdullah Lim, Muhammad Shahruney Saparudin, Oliver L. Phillips

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Abstract

Less than half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions remain in the atmosphere. While carbon balance models imply large carbon uptake in tropical forests, direct on-the-ground observations are still lacking in Southeast Asia. Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha−1 per year (95% CI 0.14–0.72, mean period 1988–2010) above-ground live biomass. These results closely match those from African and Amazonian plot networks, suggesting that the world’s remaining intact tropical forests are now en masse out-of-equilibrium. Although both pan-tropical and long-term, the sink in remaining intact forests appears vulnerable to climate and land use changes. Across Borneo the 1997–1998 El Niño drought temporarily halted the carbon sink by increasing tree mortality, while fragmentation persistently offset the sink and turned many edge-affected forests into a carbon source to the atmosphere.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1966
JournalNature Communications
Volume8
Early online date19 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Carbon Sequestration
drought
Drought
Droughts
sinks
Carbon
Borneo
carbon
Atmosphere
plots
Southeast Asia
atmospheres
Southeastern Asia
Land use
Carbon Dioxide
land use
mortality
biomass
Biomass
Climate

Keywords

  • climate-change ecology
  • climate-change impacts
  • forest ecology

Cite this

Qie, L., Lewis, S. L., Sullivan, M. J. P., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Pickavance, G. C., Sunderland, T., ... Phillips, O. L. (2017). Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects. Nature Communications, 8, [1966]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01997-0

Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects. / Qie, Lan; Lewis, Simon L.; Sullivan, Martin J. P.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela; Pickavance, Georgia C.; Sunderland, Terry; Ashton, Peter; Hubau, Wannes; Abu Salim, Kamariah; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Banin, Lindsay F.; Berry, Nicholas; Brearley, Francis Q.; Burslem, David F. R. P.; Dančák, Martin; Davies, Stuart J.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Hamer, Keith C.; Hédl, Radim; Kho, Lip Khoon; Kitayama, Kanehiro; Krisnawati, Haruni; Lhota, Stanislav; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maycock, Colin; Metali, Faizah; Mirmanto, Edi; Nagy, Laszlo; Nilus, Reuben; Ong, Robert; Pendry, Colin A.; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg; Primack, Richard B.; Rutishauser, Ervan; Samsoedin, Ismayadi; Saragih, Bernaulus; Sist, Plinio; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Sukri, Rahayu Sukmaria; Svátek, Martin; Tan, Sylvester; Tjoa, Aiyen; van Nieuwstadt, Mark; Vernimmen, Ronald R. E.; Yassir, Ishak; Kidd, Petra Susan; Fitriadi, Muhammad; Ideris, Nur Khalish Hafizhah; Serudin, Rafizah Mat; Abdullah Lim, Layla Syaznie; Saparudin, Muhammad Shahruney; Phillips, Oliver L.

In: Nature Communications, Vol. 8, 1966, 2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Qie, L, Lewis, SL, Sullivan, MJP, Lopez-Gonzalez, G, Pickavance, GC, Sunderland, T, Ashton, P, Hubau, W, Abu Salim, K, Aiba, S-I, Banin, LF, Berry, N, Brearley, FQ, Burslem, DFRP, Dančák, M, Davies, SJ, Fredriksson, G, Hamer, KC, Hédl, R, Kho, LK, Kitayama, K, Krisnawati, H, Lhota, S, Malhi, Y, Maycock, C, Metali, F, Mirmanto, E, Nagy, L, Nilus, R, Ong, R, Pendry, CA, Poulsen, AD, Primack, RB, Rutishauser, E, Samsoedin, I, Saragih, B, Sist, P, Slik, JWF, Sukri, RS, Svátek, M, Tan, S, Tjoa, A, van Nieuwstadt, M, Vernimmen, RRE, Yassir, I, Kidd, PS, Fitriadi, M, Ideris, NKH, Serudin, RM, Abdullah Lim, LS, Saparudin, MS & Phillips, OL 2017, 'Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects', Nature Communications, vol. 8, 1966. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01997-0
Qie, Lan ; Lewis, Simon L. ; Sullivan, Martin J. P. ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela ; Pickavance, Georgia C. ; Sunderland, Terry ; Ashton, Peter ; Hubau, Wannes ; Abu Salim, Kamariah ; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro ; Banin, Lindsay F. ; Berry, Nicholas ; Brearley, Francis Q. ; Burslem, David F. R. P. ; Dančák, Martin ; Davies, Stuart J. ; Fredriksson, Gabriella ; Hamer, Keith C. ; Hédl, Radim ; Kho, Lip Khoon ; Kitayama, Kanehiro ; Krisnawati, Haruni ; Lhota, Stanislav ; Malhi, Yadvinder ; Maycock, Colin ; Metali, Faizah ; Mirmanto, Edi ; Nagy, Laszlo ; Nilus, Reuben ; Ong, Robert ; Pendry, Colin A. ; Poulsen, Axel Dalberg ; Primack, Richard B. ; Rutishauser, Ervan ; Samsoedin, Ismayadi ; Saragih, Bernaulus ; Sist, Plinio ; Slik, J. W. Ferry ; Sukri, Rahayu Sukmaria ; Svátek, Martin ; Tan, Sylvester ; Tjoa, Aiyen ; van Nieuwstadt, Mark ; Vernimmen, Ronald R. E. ; Yassir, Ishak ; Kidd, Petra Susan ; Fitriadi, Muhammad ; Ideris, Nur Khalish Hafizhah ; Serudin, Rafizah Mat ; Abdullah Lim, Layla Syaznie ; Saparudin, Muhammad Shahruney ; Phillips, Oliver L. / Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects. In: Nature Communications. 2017 ; Vol. 8.
@article{5dd30ea2d4214fa3bf39c5ff4c7618ca,
title = "Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects",
abstract = "Less than half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions remain in the atmosphere. While carbon balance models imply large carbon uptake in tropical forests, direct on-the-ground observations are still lacking in Southeast Asia. Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha−1 per year (95{\%} CI 0.14–0.72, mean period 1988–2010) above-ground live biomass. These results closely match those from African and Amazonian plot networks, suggesting that the world’s remaining intact tropical forests are now en masse out-of-equilibrium. Although both pan-tropical and long-term, the sink in remaining intact forests appears vulnerable to climate and land use changes. Across Borneo the 1997–1998 El Ni{\~n}o drought temporarily halted the carbon sink by increasing tree mortality, while fragmentation persistently offset the sink and turned many edge-affected forests into a carbon source to the atmosphere.",
keywords = "climate-change ecology, climate-change impacts, forest ecology",
author = "Lan Qie and Lewis, {Simon L.} and Sullivan, {Martin J. P.} and Gabriela Lopez-Gonzalez and Pickavance, {Georgia C.} and Terry Sunderland and Peter Ashton and Wannes Hubau and {Abu Salim}, Kamariah and Shin-Ichiro Aiba and Banin, {Lindsay F.} and Nicholas Berry and Brearley, {Francis Q.} and Burslem, {David F. R. P.} and Martin Danč{\'a}k and Davies, {Stuart J.} and Gabriella Fredriksson and Hamer, {Keith C.} and Radim H{\'e}dl and Kho, {Lip Khoon} and Kanehiro Kitayama and Haruni Krisnawati and Stanislav Lhota and Yadvinder Malhi and Colin Maycock and Faizah Metali and Edi Mirmanto and Laszlo Nagy and Reuben Nilus and Robert Ong and Pendry, {Colin A.} and Poulsen, {Axel Dalberg} and Primack, {Richard B.} and Ervan Rutishauser and Ismayadi Samsoedin and Bernaulus Saragih and Plinio Sist and Slik, {J. W. Ferry} and Sukri, {Rahayu Sukmaria} and Martin Sv{\'a}tek and Sylvester Tan and Aiyen Tjoa and {van Nieuwstadt}, Mark and Vernimmen, {Ronald R. E.} and Ishak Yassir and Kidd, {Petra Susan} and Muhammad Fitriadi and Ideris, {Nur Khalish Hafizhah} and Serudin, {Rafizah Mat} and {Abdullah Lim}, {Layla Syaznie} and Saparudin, {Muhammad Shahruney} and Phillips, {Oliver L.}",
note = "This paper is a product of the T-FORCES forest monitoring network (Tropical Forests in the Changing Earth System), supported by an ERC Advanced Grant to O.L.P. and by many institutions, NGOs, government agencies and local communities in Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia. We are grateful for historical plot data contributed by the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS; two LAM plots and one BEL plot), the Global Ecosystem Monitoring network (GEM; two LAM plots), Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei plots), Kagoshima University (KIS and KIU plots), Forest Department Sarawak (BKO, LAM, MER and GMU plots), Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department (SEP plots), the Tropenbos Kalimantan project (ITCI plots), Project Barito Ulu, supported by Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) (BUL plots), and the STREK project, supported by CIRAD, The Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, and INHUTANI I (STR plots). We are indebted to a great many individuals who contributed to historical data collection. Contemporary fieldwork was supported by a grant from the ERC (T-FORCES) and from NERC (grants NER/A/S/2000/00532, NE/B503384/1, NE/N012542/1). L.Q. was supported by T-FORCES, CIFOR and NERC NE/P00363X/1. S.L.L. was supported by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship, T-FORCES and a Phillip Leverhulme Prize. O.L.P. is supported by T-FORCES and a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award. M.J.P.S. is supported by T-FORCES and NERC NE/N012542/1. L.F.B. was supported by a NERC studentship to the University of Leeds and a RGS-IBG Henrietta Hutton grant. R.H. was supported by a University of Brunei Darussalam Research Fellowship (2011) and a long-term research project RVO 67985939 from the Czech Academy of Sciences. S.L. received additional support from Primate Conservation Inc. M.S. was supported by a Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports grant of the Czech Republic INGO II LG15051. R.R.E.V. was supported by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO, grant No. W76-217). We thank Forest Department Sarawak, Sabah Biodiversity Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Department Brunei, Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, University of Brunei Darussalam and Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education for research permissions. We thank Bako National Park, Lambir Hills National Park, Gunung Mulu National Park, Kuala Belalong Field Study Centre (KBFSC), Glen Reynolds (SEARRP), Danum Valley Conservation Area, Rainforest Discovery Centre Sepilok, Sepilok Laut Reception Centre, Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Sungai Wain Protection Forest Management Unit, WWF East Kalimantan and PT. ITCIKU East Kalimantan for logistical support for fieldwork. We thank Timothy Baker, Roel Brienen, Emanuel Gloor, Adriane Esquivel Muelbert and Nicolas Labri{\`e}re for comments on the manuscript. We thank our deceased colleagues, John Proctor and Suriantata, for their invaluable contributions to both historical work and our wider understanding of tropical forest ecology.",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1038/s41467-017-01997-0",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "Nature Communications",
issn = "2041-1723",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long-term carbon sink in Borneo’s forests halted by drought and vulnerable to edge effects

AU - Qie, Lan

AU - Lewis, Simon L.

AU - Sullivan, Martin J. P.

AU - Lopez-Gonzalez, Gabriela

AU - Pickavance, Georgia C.

AU - Sunderland, Terry

AU - Ashton, Peter

AU - Hubau, Wannes

AU - Abu Salim, Kamariah

AU - Aiba, Shin-Ichiro

AU - Banin, Lindsay F.

AU - Berry, Nicholas

AU - Brearley, Francis Q.

AU - Burslem, David F. R. P.

AU - Dančák, Martin

AU - Davies, Stuart J.

AU - Fredriksson, Gabriella

AU - Hamer, Keith C.

AU - Hédl, Radim

AU - Kho, Lip Khoon

AU - Kitayama, Kanehiro

AU - Krisnawati, Haruni

AU - Lhota, Stanislav

AU - Malhi, Yadvinder

AU - Maycock, Colin

AU - Metali, Faizah

AU - Mirmanto, Edi

AU - Nagy, Laszlo

AU - Nilus, Reuben

AU - Ong, Robert

AU - Pendry, Colin A.

AU - Poulsen, Axel Dalberg

AU - Primack, Richard B.

AU - Rutishauser, Ervan

AU - Samsoedin, Ismayadi

AU - Saragih, Bernaulus

AU - Sist, Plinio

AU - Slik, J. W. Ferry

AU - Sukri, Rahayu Sukmaria

AU - Svátek, Martin

AU - Tan, Sylvester

AU - Tjoa, Aiyen

AU - van Nieuwstadt, Mark

AU - Vernimmen, Ronald R. E.

AU - Yassir, Ishak

AU - Kidd, Petra Susan

AU - Fitriadi, Muhammad

AU - Ideris, Nur Khalish Hafizhah

AU - Serudin, Rafizah Mat

AU - Abdullah Lim, Layla Syaznie

AU - Saparudin, Muhammad Shahruney

AU - Phillips, Oliver L.

N1 - This paper is a product of the T-FORCES forest monitoring network (Tropical Forests in the Changing Earth System), supported by an ERC Advanced Grant to O.L.P. and by many institutions, NGOs, government agencies and local communities in Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia. We are grateful for historical plot data contributed by the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS; two LAM plots and one BEL plot), the Global Ecosystem Monitoring network (GEM; two LAM plots), Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Brunei plots), Kagoshima University (KIS and KIU plots), Forest Department Sarawak (BKO, LAM, MER and GMU plots), Forest Research Centre, Sabah Forestry Department (SEP plots), the Tropenbos Kalimantan project (ITCI plots), Project Barito Ulu, supported by Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) (BUL plots), and the STREK project, supported by CIRAD, The Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, and INHUTANI I (STR plots). We are indebted to a great many individuals who contributed to historical data collection. Contemporary fieldwork was supported by a grant from the ERC (T-FORCES) and from NERC (grants NER/A/S/2000/00532, NE/B503384/1, NE/N012542/1). L.Q. was supported by T-FORCES, CIFOR and NERC NE/P00363X/1. S.L.L. was supported by a Royal Society University Research Fellowship, T-FORCES and a Phillip Leverhulme Prize. O.L.P. is supported by T-FORCES and a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award. M.J.P.S. is supported by T-FORCES and NERC NE/N012542/1. L.F.B. was supported by a NERC studentship to the University of Leeds and a RGS-IBG Henrietta Hutton grant. R.H. was supported by a University of Brunei Darussalam Research Fellowship (2011) and a long-term research project RVO 67985939 from the Czech Academy of Sciences. S.L. received additional support from Primate Conservation Inc. M.S. was supported by a Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports grant of the Czech Republic INGO II LG15051. R.R.E.V. was supported by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO, grant No. W76-217). We thank Forest Department Sarawak, Sabah Biodiversity Centre, Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Department Brunei, Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research, University of Brunei Darussalam and Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education for research permissions. We thank Bako National Park, Lambir Hills National Park, Gunung Mulu National Park, Kuala Belalong Field Study Centre (KBFSC), Glen Reynolds (SEARRP), Danum Valley Conservation Area, Rainforest Discovery Centre Sepilok, Sepilok Laut Reception Centre, Borneo Orangutan Survival Foundation (BOSF), Sungai Wain Protection Forest Management Unit, WWF East Kalimantan and PT. ITCIKU East Kalimantan for logistical support for fieldwork. We thank Timothy Baker, Roel Brienen, Emanuel Gloor, Adriane Esquivel Muelbert and Nicolas Labrière for comments on the manuscript. We thank our deceased colleagues, John Proctor and Suriantata, for their invaluable contributions to both historical work and our wider understanding of tropical forest ecology.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Less than half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions remain in the atmosphere. While carbon balance models imply large carbon uptake in tropical forests, direct on-the-ground observations are still lacking in Southeast Asia. Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha−1 per year (95% CI 0.14–0.72, mean period 1988–2010) above-ground live biomass. These results closely match those from African and Amazonian plot networks, suggesting that the world’s remaining intact tropical forests are now en masse out-of-equilibrium. Although both pan-tropical and long-term, the sink in remaining intact forests appears vulnerable to climate and land use changes. Across Borneo the 1997–1998 El Niño drought temporarily halted the carbon sink by increasing tree mortality, while fragmentation persistently offset the sink and turned many edge-affected forests into a carbon source to the atmosphere.

AB - Less than half of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions remain in the atmosphere. While carbon balance models imply large carbon uptake in tropical forests, direct on-the-ground observations are still lacking in Southeast Asia. Here, using long-term plot monitoring records of up to half a century, we find that intact forests in Borneo gained 0.43 Mg C ha−1 per year (95% CI 0.14–0.72, mean period 1988–2010) above-ground live biomass. These results closely match those from African and Amazonian plot networks, suggesting that the world’s remaining intact tropical forests are now en masse out-of-equilibrium. Although both pan-tropical and long-term, the sink in remaining intact forests appears vulnerable to climate and land use changes. Across Borneo the 1997–1998 El Niño drought temporarily halted the carbon sink by increasing tree mortality, while fragmentation persistently offset the sink and turned many edge-affected forests into a carbon source to the atmosphere.

KW - climate-change ecology

KW - climate-change impacts

KW - forest ecology

U2 - 10.1038/s41467-017-01997-0

DO - 10.1038/s41467-017-01997-0

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Nature Communications

JF - Nature Communications

SN - 2041-1723

M1 - 1966

ER -