Long-term effectiveness of HPV vaccination against HPV infection in young Japanese women: Real-world data.

Megumi Kurosawa, Masayuki Sekine* (Corresponding Author), Manako Yamaguchi, Risa Kudo, Sharon J. B. Hanley, Megumi Hara, Sosuke Adachi, Yutaka Ueda, Etsuko Miyagi, Sayaka Ikeda, Asami Yagi, Takayuki Enomoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In Japan, public funding for HPV vaccination began in 2010 for girls aged 13-16 years (birth cohort years 1994-1997) and women born in 1994 who turned 25 in 2019. We aimed to verify the long-term effectiveness of the bivalent HPV vaccine in women aged 25 years. Subjects were women aged 25-26 years who underwent cervical cancer screening and HPV testing in Niigata from 2019 to 2020 (birth cohort years 1993-1994). Information on vaccination status and sexual behavior was obtained from a questionnaire and municipal records. We compared the HPV infection rates of the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Of the 429 registrants, 150 (35.0%) and 279 (65.0%) were vaccinated and unvaccinated, respectively. The average period from HPV vaccination to HPV testing was 102.7 months (8.6 years), with a median of 103 months (range 92-109 months). The HPV high-risk infection rate was 21.3% (32/150) in the vaccinated group and 23.7% (66/279) in the unvaccinated group (P = 0.63). The HPV16/18 infection rate was 0% (0/150) in the vaccinated group and 5.4% (15/279) in the unvaccinated group, showing a significant difference (P = 0.0018), and the vaccine effectiveness was 100%. The cross-protective type HPV31/45/52 infection rate in the vaccinated group was significantly lower than that in the unvaccinated group (3.3% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.013). There was no significant difference in the mean age at sexual debut and the number of previous sexual partners between the two groups. We have demonstrated the long-term 9-year effectiveness of the bivalent vaccine against HPV infection for the first time in Japan.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1435-1440
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Science
Issue number4
Early online date14 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan/epidemiology
  • cervical cancer
  • HPV infection
  • HPV vaccine
  • Early Detection of Cancer
  • Vaccination
  • Japan
  • *Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis/epidemiology/prevention & control
  • *Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use
  • *Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology/prevention & control
  • Human papillomavirus 16
  • Human papillomavirus 18
  • long-term effectiveness


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