The preventive effect of HPV vaccines against anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers has been proven in both clinical trials and real-world data. We reviewed the published evidence about the long-term efficacy and effectiveness of the HPV vaccine in available papers of clinical trials and real-world data. As far as we searched, the longest period of preventive effect for the bivalent, 4-valent, and 9-valent vaccine were 11 years in the Costa Rica trial, 14 years in the FUTURE II, and 8 years in the LTFU extension study of V503-002 and the Scandinavian study, respectively. The sustained clinical effect during the observation period was longest for the 4-valent vaccine. In real-world data, the longest observation period of the vaccine effectiveness was 12 years in an Australian study for the 4-valent vaccine. On the other hand, the longest period of long-term persistence of HPV vaccine-induced seropositivity was 14 years in FUTURE II for the 4-valent vaccine. For the bivalent vaccine, additional long-term follow-up studies may not have been planned due to the launch of the 4-valent and 9-valent vaccines. In some studies of the 9-valent vaccine, the results have not yet been published because of the short observation period. The additional results are expected in the future. In a national immunization program, most girls and boys are inoculated with HPV vaccine by the time puberty begins; thus, it is important to monitor the vaccine effect at least until the sexually active period in their 20s and 30s.
|Number of pages||14|
|Early online date||8 Feb 2022|
|Publication status||Published - 8 Feb 2022|
- clinical trial
- HPV vaccination
- long-term effect
- real-world data