Long-term impact of changes in sheep Ovis aries densities on the breeding output of the hen harrier Circus cyaneus

Arjun Amar, Jacob Davies, Eric Meek, Jim Williams, Andy Knight, Steve Redpath

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1. Livestock grazing is an important form of land use across the globe and changes in grazing pressure can have profound effects on vertebrate populations.

2. In Scotland, over the last decade sheep numbers in many areas have declined from historically high levels, providing an opportunity to explore the implications of these declines for biodiversity.

3. The hen harrier Circus cyaneus is a bird of high conservation importance in the UK, and a species that may be heavily influenced by the indirect effects of sheep on habitat and prey. The hen harrier population on the Orkney Islands in Scotland has been monitored since 1975 and represents an ideal case study for considering the impact of sheep de-stocking on a key predator.

4. Declines in the harrier population were associated with a doubling in sheep numbers between the early 1980s and the late 1990s. Subsequently, as sheep numbers have fallen the harrier population has recovered. These changes indicate an association but no clear mechanism, so we tested whether reductions in sheep numbers have led to increases in harrier prey or preferred foraging habitat. We then tested whether breeding output over the last 33 years correlates with sheep stocking levels or variation in weather conditions (rainfall and temperature).

5. Orkney sheep numbers declined by about 20% between 1998 and 2008. Surveys in 1999/2000 and repeated in 2008 showed increases in rough grassland, the preferred harrier foraging habitat, and increases in a key prey species, the Orkney vole Microtus arvalis orcadensis.

6. Overall, hen harrier breeding output over the last 33 years was significantly negatively correlated to both sheep abundance and spring rainfall.

7. Synthesis and application. This study provides strong evidence for the consequences of changes in sheep numbers on a top predator. Our results indicate that reductions in sheep numbers are likely to prove beneficial for some upland species, particularly small mammals and their predators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)220-227
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Ecology
Volume48
Issue number1
Early online date12 Nov 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011

Keywords

  • agriculture
  • grasslands
  • grazing
  • grouse moors
  • Orkney
  • predation
  • rainfall
  • voles
  • Isle-of-Man
  • population-dynamics
  • grouse-moors
  • red grouse
  • habitat
  • Scotland
  • weather
  • abundance
  • moorland

Cite this

Long-term impact of changes in sheep Ovis aries densities on the breeding output of the hen harrier Circus cyaneus. / Amar, Arjun; Davies, Jacob; Meek, Eric; Williams, Jim; Knight, Andy; Redpath, Steve.

In: Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 48, No. 1, 02.2011, p. 220-227.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amar, Arjun ; Davies, Jacob ; Meek, Eric ; Williams, Jim ; Knight, Andy ; Redpath, Steve. / Long-term impact of changes in sheep Ovis aries densities on the breeding output of the hen harrier Circus cyaneus. In: Journal of Applied Ecology. 2011 ; Vol. 48, No. 1. pp. 220-227.
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AB - 1. Livestock grazing is an important form of land use across the globe and changes in grazing pressure can have profound effects on vertebrate populations. 2. In Scotland, over the last decade sheep numbers in many areas have declined from historically high levels, providing an opportunity to explore the implications of these declines for biodiversity. 3. The hen harrier Circus cyaneus is a bird of high conservation importance in the UK, and a species that may be heavily influenced by the indirect effects of sheep on habitat and prey. The hen harrier population on the Orkney Islands in Scotland has been monitored since 1975 and represents an ideal case study for considering the impact of sheep de-stocking on a key predator. 4. Declines in the harrier population were associated with a doubling in sheep numbers between the early 1980s and the late 1990s. Subsequently, as sheep numbers have fallen the harrier population has recovered. These changes indicate an association but no clear mechanism, so we tested whether reductions in sheep numbers have led to increases in harrier prey or preferred foraging habitat. We then tested whether breeding output over the last 33 years correlates with sheep stocking levels or variation in weather conditions (rainfall and temperature). 5. Orkney sheep numbers declined by about 20% between 1998 and 2008. Surveys in 1999/2000 and repeated in 2008 showed increases in rough grassland, the preferred harrier foraging habitat, and increases in a key prey species, the Orkney vole Microtus arvalis orcadensis. 6. Overall, hen harrier breeding output over the last 33 years was significantly negatively correlated to both sheep abundance and spring rainfall. 7. Synthesis and application. This study provides strong evidence for the consequences of changes in sheep numbers on a top predator. Our results indicate that reductions in sheep numbers are likely to prove beneficial for some upland species, particularly small mammals and their predators.

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KW - Scotland

KW - weather

KW - abundance

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JF - Journal of Applied Ecology

SN - 0021-8901

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