Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Angela Jackson-Morris, Kayleigh Bleymann, Elaine Lyall, Fouad Aslam, Tara Singh Bam, Ishrat Chowdhury, Elhadj Adam Daouda, Mariana Espinosa, Jonathan Romo, Rana J Singh, Sean Semple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high.

METHODS: Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day.

RESULTS: Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P < .001). In over one-quarter of venues where smoking was observed the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 64 µg/m(3).

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low-cost air quality monitoring is a viable method for improving knowledge about environmental SHS and can provide indicative data on compliance with local and national SF legislation in hospitality venues in LMICs.

IMPLICATIONS: Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1258-1264
Number of pages7
JournalNicotine & Tobacco Research
Volume18
Issue number5
Early online date26 Jan 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2016

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Smoke
Compliance
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Smoking
Air
Legislation
Costs and Cost Analysis
Chad
Air Pollution
India
Restaurants
Bangladesh
Indonesia
Particulate Matter
Pakistan
Feasibility Studies
Mexico
Equipment and Supplies

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Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations : A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries. / Jackson-Morris, Angela; Bleymann, Kayleigh; Lyall, Elaine; Aslam, Fouad; Bam, Tara Singh; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Daouda, Elhadj Adam; Espinosa, Mariana; Romo, Jonathan; Singh, Rana J; Semple, Sean.

In: Nicotine & Tobacco Research, Vol. 18, No. 5, 05.2016, p. 1258-1264.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Jackson-Morris, A, Bleymann, K, Lyall, E, Aslam, F, Bam, TS, Chowdhury, I, Daouda, EA, Espinosa, M, Romo, J, Singh, RJ & Semple, S 2016, 'Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries', Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1258-1264. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntv290
Jackson-Morris, Angela ; Bleymann, Kayleigh ; Lyall, Elaine ; Aslam, Fouad ; Bam, Tara Singh ; Chowdhury, Ishrat ; Daouda, Elhadj Adam ; Espinosa, Mariana ; Romo, Jonathan ; Singh, Rana J ; Semple, Sean. / Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations : A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries. In: Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2016 ; Vol. 18, No. 5. pp. 1258-1264.
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abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high.METHODS: Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day.RESULTS: Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5{\%} in India to 72{\%} in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P < .001). In over one-quarter of venues where smoking was observed the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 64 µg/m(3).CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low-cost air quality monitoring is a viable method for improving knowledge about environmental SHS and can provide indicative data on compliance with local and national SF legislation in hospitality venues in LMICs.IMPLICATIONS: Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation.",
author = "Angela Jackson-Morris and Kayleigh Bleymann and Elaine Lyall and Fouad Aslam and Bam, {Tara Singh} and Ishrat Chowdhury and Daouda, {Elhadj Adam} and Mariana Espinosa and Jonathan Romo and Singh, {Rana J} and Sean Semple",
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AU - Bleymann, Kayleigh

AU - Lyall, Elaine

AU - Aslam, Fouad

AU - Bam, Tara Singh

AU - Chowdhury, Ishrat

AU - Daouda, Elhadj Adam

AU - Espinosa, Mariana

AU - Romo, Jonathan

AU - Singh, Rana J

AU - Semple, Sean

N1 - © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. Funding The Union’s work on tobacco control is supported by The Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use

PY - 2016/5

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N2 - INTRODUCTION: Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high.METHODS: Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day.RESULTS: Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P < .001). In over one-quarter of venues where smoking was observed the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 64 µg/m(3).CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low-cost air quality monitoring is a viable method for improving knowledge about environmental SHS and can provide indicative data on compliance with local and national SF legislation in hospitality venues in LMICs.IMPLICATIONS: Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation.

AB - INTRODUCTION: Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high.METHODS: Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day.RESULTS: Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P < .001). In over one-quarter of venues where smoking was observed the difference between indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 64 µg/m(3).CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low-cost air quality monitoring is a viable method for improving knowledge about environmental SHS and can provide indicative data on compliance with local and national SF legislation in hospitality venues in LMICs.IMPLICATIONS: Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation.

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JO - Nicotine & Tobacco Research

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SN - 1462-2203

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