Despite considerable public health initiatives in the past century, there remains a significant gender inequality in life expectancy. The Global Burden of Diseases study has highlighted that the life expectancy for men is 70.5years, compared with 75.6years for women. This discrepancy in mortality appears to be related to a disproportionately higher number of preventable and premature male deaths. Whilst there has been an increased focus on men's health, as evidenced by the establishment of men's health charities and governmental legislation promoting equality, a recent World Health Organization report has highlighted that there is still a prevailing misconception that the higher rate of premature mortality amongst men is a natural phenomenon. We explore the association of male sexual and reproductive health-related diseases and the potential role of a urologist in addressing gender inequality in life expectancy.
PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we discuss the causes for the gender gap in life expectancy and highlight that men continue to have a higher rate of premature death than women, which is associated with diseases of the male reproductive system. Furthermore, this not only appears to be related to a number of metabolic and lifestyle factors, but may also be the result of the increased risk of cancer in men with sexual and reproductive health-related diseases.
- Androgen deprivation
- Cardiovascular disease
- Gender gap
- Life expectancy
- Male infertility
- Metabolic syndrome
- Prostate cancer
- Testosterone late-onset hypogonadism
- Testosterone replacement therapy