Angina is a common symptom associated with considerable morbidity and mortality; with proper management, both can be reduced. All patients (with the possible exception of the very elderly with mild symptoms) should be referred to a cardiologist for assessment. The cornerstones of management include establishing the diagnosis, treating the symptoms, determining the risk of future adverse events and implementing measures to improve the prognosis. Well-validated tests, effective treatments and excellent scientific data are available to assist the physician. Nevertheless, the optimal management of individual patients remains a matter of clinical judgement.
- stable angina
- unstable angina