Measuring the Integration of Social and Environmental Missions in Hybrid Organizations

Edward N. Gamble (Corresponding Author), Simon C. Parker, Peter W. Moroz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)
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This paper introduces a new typology and associated measure of social and environmental mission integration (SEMI) by conceptually framing a feature of hybrid organizations—the degree of integration of their revenue model and social–environmental mission. The SEMI measure is illustrated using a hand-collected sample of 256 North American Certified B Corporations. We explore the heterogeneity of SEMI scores by identifying external-facing correlates and demonstrate non-congruence with Certified B Corporation’s audit results. Overall, our findings advance existing knowledge of these hybrid organizations and how they balance their social–environmental missions with their economic objectives.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Early online date1 Apr 2019
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Apr 2019


  • B Corps
  • Business models
  • Hybrid organizations
  • Social and environmental index
  • Typology
  • Voluntary audits

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