Mechanisms linking under-nutrition and ovarian function in beef heifers

P. M. Dawuda, Jeremy R Scaife, John Stuart Morley Hutchinson, K. D. Sinclair

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Prolonged reduction in energy intake in beef heifers has been reported to suppress ovulation but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in the pattern of LH secretion following each of three different tests predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (H-P-O) axis. Test I examined the ratio of LH secretion during the I h before and 2 h after naloxone (NAL) administration. The other two tests assessed the LH surge following an exogenous oestradiol positive feedback signal (Test 2) or exogenous progesterone priming (Test 3). In phases I and 3, each of 8 weeks duration, the heifers were fed 100% of their maintenance energy requirements. In phase 2, of 9 weeks duration, they were fed 50% of their maintenance energy requirements. Oestrus was induced in all heifers by PG administration at the start of the experiment.

Heifers were administered a naloxone challenge of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride i.v. (one dose per heifer) during the mid-luteal period of phase I and all four naloxone treated heifers received 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride at the end of phases 2 and 3. Doses of 10, 20 or 40 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m. were each administered to two of the remaining heifers during the mid-luteal period of phase 1. One heifer on each dose of oestradiol benzoate in phase I had the same dose administered at the end of phases 2 and 3. The progesterone challenge was administered to three heifers by insertion of a PRID for 12 days starting in the middle of phase 2.

In Test 1, the ratio of LH secretion before and after naloxone administration in phase I was 1: 1 (50mg), 1:4 (100mg), 1:4 (200mg) and 1:9 (400mg) (50mg versus 100mg and 100mg versus 200 mg doses, P < 0.05); 50 mg versus 400 mg doses, P < 0.001). In phase 2, this ratio was 1: 1 and there was no response to 400 mg dose of naloxone in any of the four heifers. In phase 3, the ratio depended on the ovarian activity in the heifer and ranged from 1: 1 to 1:4 (P < 0.05). In Test 3, a positive oestradiol feedback signal was detected in cyclic heifers in phases 1-3 but not in the acyclic heifer in phase 2. Heifers challenge with exogenous progesterone did not have oestradiol or LH values above threshold levels.

We conclude that all three tests successfully predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. In nutritionally undernourished beef heifers onset of ovarian acyclicity is either preceded or accompanied by the loss of a positive feedback signal (Test 2) and progesterone priming ability (Test 3), and that a plasma LH ratio of greater than or equal to 1:2 following naloxone challenge (Test 1) is a sign of recovery of the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-26
Number of pages15
JournalAnimal Reproduction Science
Volume74
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

Keywords

  • cattle-under-nutrition
  • ovarian activity
  • GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE
  • SUBNORMAL LUTEAL FUNCTION
  • LUTEINIZING-HORMONE
  • DIETARY ENERGY
  • BODY CONDITION
  • LH-SECRETION
  • OPIOID MODULATION
  • ESTROUS-CYCLE
  • CALF REMOVAL
  • DAIRY-COWS

Cite this

Mechanisms linking under-nutrition and ovarian function in beef heifers. / Dawuda, P. M.; Scaife, Jeremy R; Hutchinson, John Stuart Morley; Sinclair, K. D.

In: Animal Reproduction Science, Vol. 74, 2002, p. 11-26.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dawuda, P. M. ; Scaife, Jeremy R ; Hutchinson, John Stuart Morley ; Sinclair, K. D. / Mechanisms linking under-nutrition and ovarian function in beef heifers. In: Animal Reproduction Science. 2002 ; Vol. 74. pp. 11-26.
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T1 - Mechanisms linking under-nutrition and ovarian function in beef heifers

AU - Dawuda, P. M.

AU - Scaife, Jeremy R

AU - Hutchinson, John Stuart Morley

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N2 - Prolonged reduction in energy intake in beef heifers has been reported to suppress ovulation but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in the pattern of LH secretion following each of three different tests predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (H-P-O) axis. Test I examined the ratio of LH secretion during the I h before and 2 h after naloxone (NAL) administration. The other two tests assessed the LH surge following an exogenous oestradiol positive feedback signal (Test 2) or exogenous progesterone priming (Test 3). In phases I and 3, each of 8 weeks duration, the heifers were fed 100% of their maintenance energy requirements. In phase 2, of 9 weeks duration, they were fed 50% of their maintenance energy requirements. Oestrus was induced in all heifers by PG administration at the start of the experiment.Heifers were administered a naloxone challenge of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride i.v. (one dose per heifer) during the mid-luteal period of phase I and all four naloxone treated heifers received 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride at the end of phases 2 and 3. Doses of 10, 20 or 40 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m. were each administered to two of the remaining heifers during the mid-luteal period of phase 1. One heifer on each dose of oestradiol benzoate in phase I had the same dose administered at the end of phases 2 and 3. The progesterone challenge was administered to three heifers by insertion of a PRID for 12 days starting in the middle of phase 2.In Test 1, the ratio of LH secretion before and after naloxone administration in phase I was 1: 1 (50mg), 1:4 (100mg), 1:4 (200mg) and 1:9 (400mg) (50mg versus 100mg and 100mg versus 200 mg doses, P < 0.05); 50 mg versus 400 mg doses, P < 0.001). In phase 2, this ratio was 1: 1 and there was no response to 400 mg dose of naloxone in any of the four heifers. In phase 3, the ratio depended on the ovarian activity in the heifer and ranged from 1: 1 to 1:4 (P < 0.05). In Test 3, a positive oestradiol feedback signal was detected in cyclic heifers in phases 1-3 but not in the acyclic heifer in phase 2. Heifers challenge with exogenous progesterone did not have oestradiol or LH values above threshold levels.We conclude that all three tests successfully predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. In nutritionally undernourished beef heifers onset of ovarian acyclicity is either preceded or accompanied by the loss of a positive feedback signal (Test 2) and progesterone priming ability (Test 3), and that a plasma LH ratio of greater than or equal to 1:2 following naloxone challenge (Test 1) is a sign of recovery of the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

AB - Prolonged reduction in energy intake in beef heifers has been reported to suppress ovulation but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in the pattern of LH secretion following each of three different tests predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (H-P-O) axis. Test I examined the ratio of LH secretion during the I h before and 2 h after naloxone (NAL) administration. The other two tests assessed the LH surge following an exogenous oestradiol positive feedback signal (Test 2) or exogenous progesterone priming (Test 3). In phases I and 3, each of 8 weeks duration, the heifers were fed 100% of their maintenance energy requirements. In phase 2, of 9 weeks duration, they were fed 50% of their maintenance energy requirements. Oestrus was induced in all heifers by PG administration at the start of the experiment.Heifers were administered a naloxone challenge of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride i.v. (one dose per heifer) during the mid-luteal period of phase I and all four naloxone treated heifers received 400 mg naloxone hydrochloride at the end of phases 2 and 3. Doses of 10, 20 or 40 mg oestradiol benzoate (EB) i.m. were each administered to two of the remaining heifers during the mid-luteal period of phase 1. One heifer on each dose of oestradiol benzoate in phase I had the same dose administered at the end of phases 2 and 3. The progesterone challenge was administered to three heifers by insertion of a PRID for 12 days starting in the middle of phase 2.In Test 1, the ratio of LH secretion before and after naloxone administration in phase I was 1: 1 (50mg), 1:4 (100mg), 1:4 (200mg) and 1:9 (400mg) (50mg versus 100mg and 100mg versus 200 mg doses, P < 0.05); 50 mg versus 400 mg doses, P < 0.001). In phase 2, this ratio was 1: 1 and there was no response to 400 mg dose of naloxone in any of the four heifers. In phase 3, the ratio depended on the ovarian activity in the heifer and ranged from 1: 1 to 1:4 (P < 0.05). In Test 3, a positive oestradiol feedback signal was detected in cyclic heifers in phases 1-3 but not in the acyclic heifer in phase 2. Heifers challenge with exogenous progesterone did not have oestradiol or LH values above threshold levels.We conclude that all three tests successfully predicted the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. In nutritionally undernourished beef heifers onset of ovarian acyclicity is either preceded or accompanied by the loss of a positive feedback signal (Test 2) and progesterone priming ability (Test 3), and that a plasma LH ratio of greater than or equal to 1:2 following naloxone challenge (Test 1) is a sign of recovery of the functional state of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

KW - cattle-under-nutrition

KW - ovarian activity

KW - GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE

KW - SUBNORMAL LUTEAL FUNCTION

KW - LUTEINIZING-HORMONE

KW - DIETARY ENERGY

KW - BODY CONDITION

KW - LH-SECRETION

KW - OPIOID MODULATION

KW - ESTROUS-CYCLE

KW - CALF REMOVAL

KW - DAIRY-COWS

U2 - 10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00166-5

DO - 10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00166-5

M3 - Article

VL - 74

SP - 11

EP - 26

JO - Animal Reproduction Science

JF - Animal Reproduction Science

SN - 0378-4320

ER -