Hypha orientation is an essential aspect of polarised growth and the morphogenesis, spatial ecology and pathogenesis of fungi. The ability to re-orient tip growth in response to environmental cues is critical for colony ramification, the penetration of diverse host tissues and the formation of mating structures. Recent studies have begun to describe the molecular machinery regulating hypha orientation. Calcium signalling, the polarisome Bud1-GTPase module and the Tea cell-end marker proteins of the microtubule cytoskeleton, along with specific kinesins and sterol-rich apical microdomains, are involved in hypha orientation. Mutations that affect these processes generate normal-shaped, growing hyphae that have either abnormal meandering trajectories or attenuated tropic responses. Hyphal tip orientation and tip extension are, therefore, distinct regulatory mechanisms that operate in parallel during filamentous growth, thereby allowing fungi to orchestrate their reproduction in relation to gradients of effectors in their environments.
- models, biological
- stress, physiological