The purpose of the work was to set-up a simple method to evaluate the contribution of Mn2+ ions in the intra- and extracellular tumor compartments in a MEMRI experiment. This task has been tackled by silencing the relaxation enhancement arising from Mn2+ ions in the extracellular space. In vitro relaxometric measurements allowed assessment of the sequestering activity of DO2A (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,7-diacetic acid) towards Mn2+ ions, as the addition of Ca-DO2A to a solution of MnCl2 causes a drop of relaxivity upon the formation of the highly stable and low-relaxivity Mn-DO2A. It has been proved that the sequestering ability of DO2A towards Mn2+ ions is also fully effective in the presence of serum albumin. Moreover, it has been shown that Mn-DO2A does not enter cell membranes, nor does the presence of Ca-DO2A in the extracellular space prompt migration of Mn ions from the intracellular compartment. On this basis the in vivo, instantaneous, drop in SE% (percent signal enhancement) in T-1-weighted images is taken as evidence of the sequestration of extracellular Mn2+ ions upon addition of Ca-DO2A. By applying the method to B16F10 tumor bearing mice, T-1 decrease is readily detected in the tumor region, whereas a negligible change in SE% is observed in kidneys, liver and muscle. The relaxometric MRI results have been validated by ICP-MS measurements. Copyright (c) 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- cellular and molecular cancer imaging
- molecular and cellular probes
- calcium receptors
- volume fraction
- manganese(II) complexes