Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) typically feed on prey that are high in lipid and protein content and nearly devoid of carbohydrate, a dietary feature shared with other marine mammals. However, unlike fasted-adapted marine mammals that predictably incorporate fasting into their life history, dolphins feed intermittently throughout the day and are not believed to be fasting-adapted. To assess whether the physiological response to fasting in the dolphin shares features with or distinguishes them from those of fasting-adapted marine mammals, the plasma metabolomes of eight bottlenose dolphins were compared between post-absorptive and 24-hour fasted states. Increases in most identified free fatty acids and lipid metabolites and reductions in most amino acids and their metabolites were consistent with the upregulation of lipolysis and lipid oxidation and the downregulation of protein catabolism and synthesis. Consistent with a previously hypothesized diabetic-like fasting state, fasting was associated with elevated glucose and patterns of certain metabolites (e.g. citrate, cis-aconitate, myristoleic acid) indicative of lipid synthesis and glucose cycling to protect endogenous glucose from oxidative disposal. Pathway analysis predicted an upregulation of cytokines, decreased cell growth, and increased apoptosis including apoptosis of insulin-secreting β-cells. Metabolomic conditional mutual information networks were estimated for the post-absorptive and fasted states and 'topological modules' were estimated for each using the eigenvector approach to modularity network division. A Dynamic Network Marker indicative of a physiological shift toward a negative energy state was subsequently identified that has the potential conservation application of assessing energy state balance in at-risk wild dolphins.
- Tursiops truncatus,
- Dynamic network marker