Metamorphic and thermal history of a fore-arc basin: the Fossil Bluff Group, Alexander Island, Antartica

S. Miller, David Iain MacPherson MacDonald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Himalia Ridge Formation (Fossil Bluff Group), Alexander Island is a 2.2-km-thick sequence of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, derived from an andesitic volcanic arc and deposited in a fore-arc basin. The metamorphic and thermal history of the formation has been determined using authigenic mineral assemblages and vitrinite reflectance measurements. Metamorphic effects include compaction, pore-space reduction, cementation and dissolution and replacement of detrital grains by clay minerals (smectite, illite/smectite, corrensite and kaolinite), calcite, chlorite, laumontite, prehnite, pumpellyite, albite and mica, with less common quartz, haematite, pyrite and epidote. The authigenic mineral assemblages exhibit a depth-dependence, and laumontite and calcite exhibit a strong antipathetic relationship. Detrital organic matter in the argillaceous layers has vitrinite reflectance values (R-o) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7%. This indicates considerable thermal maturation, with a systematic increase in reflectivity with increasing depth. There is good correlation of metamorphic mineral assemblages with chlorite crystallinity and vitrinite reflectance values-all indicating temperatures in the range of 140 +/- 20degreesC at the top of the sequence to 250 +/- 10degreesC at the base of the sequence. The temperatures suggest a geothermal gradient of 36-64degreesC/km and a most likely gradient of 50degreesC/km. It is suggested that this higher-than-average gradient for a fore-arc basin resulted either from rifting during basin formation or from a late-stage arc migration event.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1453-1465
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Petrology
Volume45
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004

Keywords

  • Antarctica
  • diagenesis
  • fore-arc basin
  • low-temperature metamorphism
  • vitrinite reflectance
  • ILLITE CRYSTALLINITY
  • GEOTHERMAL GRADIENTS
  • FACIES METAMORPHISM
  • FISSION-TRACK
  • PENINSULA
  • SUBDUCTION
  • EXPLORATION
  • REFLECTANCE
  • MODEL
  • PLATE

Cite this

Metamorphic and thermal history of a fore-arc basin: the Fossil Bluff Group, Alexander Island, Antartica. / Miller, S.; MacDonald, David Iain MacPherson.

In: Journal of Petrology, Vol. 45, No. 7, 02.2004, p. 1453-1465.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Miller, S. ; MacDonald, David Iain MacPherson. / Metamorphic and thermal history of a fore-arc basin: the Fossil Bluff Group, Alexander Island, Antartica. In: Journal of Petrology. 2004 ; Vol. 45, No. 7. pp. 1453-1465.
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abstract = "The Himalia Ridge Formation (Fossil Bluff Group), Alexander Island is a 2.2-km-thick sequence of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, derived from an andesitic volcanic arc and deposited in a fore-arc basin. The metamorphic and thermal history of the formation has been determined using authigenic mineral assemblages and vitrinite reflectance measurements. Metamorphic effects include compaction, pore-space reduction, cementation and dissolution and replacement of detrital grains by clay minerals (smectite, illite/smectite, corrensite and kaolinite), calcite, chlorite, laumontite, prehnite, pumpellyite, albite and mica, with less common quartz, haematite, pyrite and epidote. The authigenic mineral assemblages exhibit a depth-dependence, and laumontite and calcite exhibit a strong antipathetic relationship. Detrital organic matter in the argillaceous layers has vitrinite reflectance values (R-o) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7{\%}. This indicates considerable thermal maturation, with a systematic increase in reflectivity with increasing depth. There is good correlation of metamorphic mineral assemblages with chlorite crystallinity and vitrinite reflectance values-all indicating temperatures in the range of 140 +/- 20degreesC at the top of the sequence to 250 +/- 10degreesC at the base of the sequence. The temperatures suggest a geothermal gradient of 36-64degreesC/km and a most likely gradient of 50degreesC/km. It is suggested that this higher-than-average gradient for a fore-arc basin resulted either from rifting during basin formation or from a late-stage arc migration event.",
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N2 - The Himalia Ridge Formation (Fossil Bluff Group), Alexander Island is a 2.2-km-thick sequence of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, derived from an andesitic volcanic arc and deposited in a fore-arc basin. The metamorphic and thermal history of the formation has been determined using authigenic mineral assemblages and vitrinite reflectance measurements. Metamorphic effects include compaction, pore-space reduction, cementation and dissolution and replacement of detrital grains by clay minerals (smectite, illite/smectite, corrensite and kaolinite), calcite, chlorite, laumontite, prehnite, pumpellyite, albite and mica, with less common quartz, haematite, pyrite and epidote. The authigenic mineral assemblages exhibit a depth-dependence, and laumontite and calcite exhibit a strong antipathetic relationship. Detrital organic matter in the argillaceous layers has vitrinite reflectance values (R-o) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7%. This indicates considerable thermal maturation, with a systematic increase in reflectivity with increasing depth. There is good correlation of metamorphic mineral assemblages with chlorite crystallinity and vitrinite reflectance values-all indicating temperatures in the range of 140 +/- 20degreesC at the top of the sequence to 250 +/- 10degreesC at the base of the sequence. The temperatures suggest a geothermal gradient of 36-64degreesC/km and a most likely gradient of 50degreesC/km. It is suggested that this higher-than-average gradient for a fore-arc basin resulted either from rifting during basin formation or from a late-stage arc migration event.

AB - The Himalia Ridge Formation (Fossil Bluff Group), Alexander Island is a 2.2-km-thick sequence of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones, derived from an andesitic volcanic arc and deposited in a fore-arc basin. The metamorphic and thermal history of the formation has been determined using authigenic mineral assemblages and vitrinite reflectance measurements. Metamorphic effects include compaction, pore-space reduction, cementation and dissolution and replacement of detrital grains by clay minerals (smectite, illite/smectite, corrensite and kaolinite), calcite, chlorite, laumontite, prehnite, pumpellyite, albite and mica, with less common quartz, haematite, pyrite and epidote. The authigenic mineral assemblages exhibit a depth-dependence, and laumontite and calcite exhibit a strong antipathetic relationship. Detrital organic matter in the argillaceous layers has vitrinite reflectance values (R-o) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7%. This indicates considerable thermal maturation, with a systematic increase in reflectivity with increasing depth. There is good correlation of metamorphic mineral assemblages with chlorite crystallinity and vitrinite reflectance values-all indicating temperatures in the range of 140 +/- 20degreesC at the top of the sequence to 250 +/- 10degreesC at the base of the sequence. The temperatures suggest a geothermal gradient of 36-64degreesC/km and a most likely gradient of 50degreesC/km. It is suggested that this higher-than-average gradient for a fore-arc basin resulted either from rifting during basin formation or from a late-stage arc migration event.

KW - Antarctica

KW - diagenesis

KW - fore-arc basin

KW - low-temperature metamorphism

KW - vitrinite reflectance

KW - ILLITE CRYSTALLINITY

KW - GEOTHERMAL GRADIENTS

KW - FACIES METAMORPHISM

KW - FISSION-TRACK

KW - PENINSULA

KW - SUBDUCTION

KW - EXPLORATION

KW - REFLECTANCE

KW - MODEL

KW - PLATE

U2 - 10.1093/petrology/egh025

DO - 10.1093/petrology/egh025

M3 - Article

VL - 45

SP - 1453

EP - 1465

JO - Journal of Petrology

JF - Journal of Petrology

SN - 0022-3530

IS - 7

ER -