Mediterranean climate, found in some regions between latitudes 30° and 45°, is characterized by having mild winters and warm and dry summers. Over one half of the area with Mediterranean-type climate worldwide is found in the Mediterranean Sea Basin, but it is also present in four other regions of the world namely California (USA), Central Chile, the Cape region of South Africa, and South-West Australia (Aschmann, 1973). Precipitation during the summer period, when highest temperatures occur, is scarce, and crop yields are boosted by irrigation more than in temperate areas (Wriedt et al., 2009). Climate models have forecast a rise in temperatures and severe water scarcity, with major impacts on crop yields (Bindi and Olesen, 2011 and Iglesias et al., 2011). In Mediterranean Europe, driven by climate change, annual precipitation has decreased whereas the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events (e.g. droughts, floods) increased, thus enhancing land degradation processes and the risk of desertification (Diodato et al., 2011 and Garcia-Ruiz et al., 2011). The development of effective mitigation and adaptation strategies are therefore crucial for the future of the Mediterranean region. Additionally, the understanding of Mediterranean agroecosystems is also interesting in the context of increasing temperature and decreasing precipitation in many temperate areas (Trnka et al., 2011), which could lead to a process of “mediterraneization”. Indeed, climate models indicate that the Mediterranean climate range could expand by 15–32% in the Mediterranean basin and by 29–53% in South America (Klausmeyer and Shaw, 2009).