Although earthworms have been found to inhabit arsenic-rich soils in the U.K., the mode of arsenic detoxification is currently unknown. Biochemical analyses and subcellular localization studies have indicated that As3+-thiol complexes may be involved; however, it is not known whether arsenic is capable of inducing the expression of metallothionein (MT) in earthworms. The specific aims of this paper were (a) to detect and gain an atomic characterization of ligand complexing by X-ray absorption spectrometry (XAS), and (b) to employ a polyclonal antibody raised against an earthworm MT isoform (w-MT2) to detect and localize the metalloprotein by immunoperoxidase histochemistry in the tissues of earthworms sampled from arsenic-rich soil. Data suggested that the proportion of arsenate to sulfur-bound species varies within specific earthworm tissues. Although some arsenic appeared to be in the form of arsenobetaine, the arsenic within the chlorogogenous tissue was predominantly coordinated with S in the form of -SH groups. This suggests the presence of an As::MT complex. Indeed, MT was detectable with a distinctly localized tissue and cellular distribution. While MT was not detectable in the surface epithelium or in the body wall musculature, immunoperoxidase histochemistry identified the presence of MT in chloragocytes around blood vessels, within the typhlosolar fold, and in the peri-intestinal region. Focal immunostaining was also detectable in a cohort of cells in the intestinal wall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that arsenic induces MT expression and is sequestered by the metalloprotein in certain target cells and tissues.
- CURVED-WAVE THEORY
- POULTRY LITTER